Religious Studies (REL)

REL 160. *QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS. (4 Credits)

A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 160.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 160, PHL 160H, REL 160H

REL 160H. *QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS. (0-4 Credits)

A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 160H.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 160, PHL 160H, REL 160

REL 170. *THE IDEA OF GOD. (4 Credits)

Concepts and images of God and their connections to world-views, experience, science, gender, society, self-understanding, and religions. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 170.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: PHL 170

REL 199. SPECIAL TOPICS. (1-4 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 12 credits.

REL 201. STUDY OF PEACE AND THE CAUSES OF CONFLICT. (3 Credits)

Examination of the causes of personal, social, and institutional conflict and peaceful, constructive means of dealing with conflict. The history and current status of peace movements within and outside governments; prospects for world peace. Case studies in peace and conflict (H) CROSSLISTED as PAX 201.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PAX 201

REL 202. INTRODUCTION TO RELIGIOUS STUDIES. (4 Credits)

An introduction to the academic study of religion. It examines the concepts of religion and the sacred, approaches to the study of religion, ubiquitous features of religious experience, including symbol, myth, ritual, and community, understandings of the human condition in diverse religious traditions, and ways religious communities address challenges of pluralism and secularization. CROSSLISTED as PHL 202.

Equivalent to: PHL 202

REL 206. *RELIGIOUS ETHICS AND MORAL PROBLEMS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the practical ethics of the monotheistic religious traditions of the West--Judaism, Christianity, Islam--and their different approaches to concrete moral problems. Topics include sexuality and marriage, euthanasia, capital punishment, pacifism and just war, and environmentalism. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 206.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: PHL 206

REL 208. INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHIST TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

Survey of the historical development of Buddhism in India and its spread throughout Asia and beyond by investigating the literature, rituals, history and social structure of the Buddhist traditions of Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, Tibet and the Himalayan region, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and finally its growth in the West. (NC) CROSSLISTED as PHL 208.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 208

REL 210. *RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES. (4 Credits)

A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 210, PHL 210.

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: HST 210, HST 210H, PHL 210, PHL 210H, REL 210H

REL 210H. *RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES. (4 Credits)

A thematics overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 210H, PHL 210H.

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: HST 210, HST 210H, PHL 210, PHL 210H, REL 210

REL 213. *INTRODUCTION TO HINDU TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

Survey of the historical development of Hinduism in India and the "Hindu Diaspora." Topics will include the Indus Valley civilization, the Vedic tradition, yoga, and Hindu renunciation, "Classical" Hindu theism and devotion, Hindu philosophy and ritual, and modern and contemporary Hinduism. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 213.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: PHL 213

REL 214. *INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

Development of Islamic traditions in the Arab world and in the global context. Origins of Islam, the narrative of the Prophet Mohammad, the development of the Qur'an, and the central tenets of Islamic faith and practice. Transformation of Islam from a regional to a global tradition. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 214.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: PHL 214

REL 215. *INTRODUCTION TO JEWISH TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

An introduction to Judaism's traditions, histories, and practices. Covers historical origins and developments from the biblical period through the Middle Ages, and considers Judaism in the modern world. Topics include the Jewish calendar (including holidays and their traditions), Jewish life cycle events, Jewish prayer, and traditional texts such as the Mishnah and Talmud. CROSSLISTED as HST 215. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: HST 215

REL 220. *WORLD-VIEWS AND VALUES IN THE BIBLE. (4 Credits)

A study of central portions of the Bible (in the Old Testament: Torah, prophets, psalms, and wisdom; in the New Testament: Jesus, gospels, and letters) from the perspective of the academic discipline of biblical scholarship, exploring the philosophical questions of the relationships between story, myth, thought, values, and understandings of life. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 220.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 220

REL 299. SPECIAL TOPICS. (1-4 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 12 credits.

REL 310. *CRITICS OF RELIGION. (4 Credits)

An introduction to critiques of religion by Nietzsche, Freud, Marx, and other influential thinkers. Examines the nature, scope, and effects of criticisms that challenge the psychological, moral, political, and epistemological foundations of religious belief, practice, and institutions. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 310.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 310

REL 312. *ASIAN THOUGHT. (4 Credits)

Familiarizes students with key figures in the history of Asian religious ideas and philosophy. While the emphasis will be on the philosophical traditions of Asia, it will quickly become apparent that philosophy and religion are not so easily distinguishable in many Asian traditions. Areas of thought studied will include Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 312.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 312

REL 315. *GANDHI AND NONVIOLENCE. (4 Credits)

An examination of the life and work of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the 20th century activist and author, and the theory and practice of nonviolence in his life and work. Emphasis will be placed upon Gandhi's biographical narrative, the development of satyagraha, Gandhi's nonviolent approach to social transformation, and post-Gandhian nonviolent movements. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 315.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: PHL 315

REL 316. INTELLECTUAL ISSUES OF MEXICO AND MEXICAN AMERICANS. (4 Credits)

The philosophical, social, cultural, and political reality of Mexican Americans and their historical roots in Mexico since the Spanish Conquest. Analysis of internal colonialism, racism, machismo, fatalism, alienation, cultural identity, as well as more contemporary including NAFTA, immigration, and the U.S.-Mexican relations. (NC) CROSSLISTED as PHL 316.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 316

REL 324. *ANCIENT JEWISH HISTORY. (4 Credits)

History of Judaism from the Second Temple through the early Rabbinic period (539 BCE--200 CE). Covers historical origins and developments of Judaism including the canonization of the Bible, Jewish life in the Persian and Greco-Roman worlds, and the beginnings of Diasporic and Rabbinic Judaism. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 324.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: HST 324

REL 325. *EARLY CHRISTIANITY: ORIGINS TO 600. (4 Credits)

Traces early Christianity from its origins to the beginning of the Middle Ages. It deals with the origins and Jewish background of Christianity in Palestine, the ministry and teachings of Jesus, the spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire by his disciples and early missionaries, the formation of the New Testament canon, the development of Christian doctrine, controversies over heresy, and the origin of monasticism and the Papacy. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 325.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: HST 325

REL 327. HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE. (4 Credits)

Cultural, political, and economic history of the European Middle Ages from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West to the Renaissance. Covers 284 A.D. to 1000. Not offered every year. (H). CROSSLISTED as HST 327.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: HST 327

REL 328. HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE. (4 Credits)

Cultural, political, and economic history of the European Middle Ages from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West to the Renaissance. Covers 1000 to 1400. Not offered every year. (H) CROSSLISTED as HST 328.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: HST 328

REL 330. HISTORY OF EARLY MODERN EUROPE. (4 Credits)

Political, social, intellectual, and cultural history of Europe from 1400-1789. Focuses on the Reformation. Not offered every year. (H) CROSSLISTED as HST 330.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: HST 330

REL 333. MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPANISH HISTORY. (4 Credits)

From Islamic conquest to conquest of America, the social, religious, political and economic history of Spain from 1000 to 1700. Offered fall term in odd years. (H) CROSSLISTED as HST 333.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: HST 333

REL 344. *PACIFISM, JUST WAR, AND TERRORISM. (4 Credits)

An examination of the philosophical and theological issues pertaining to pacifism, justified war, and forms of terrorism in Islamic and Western traditions. Special attention is given to concepts of jihad, justifications of war, and restraints on conduct in war. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 344.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 344

REL 345. *FIRST FREEDOM: RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND INTOLERANCE. (4 Credits)

An examination of the religious, philosophical, political, and historical issues regarding religious freedom, conscience, and disestablishment as enshrined in the First Amendment and as illustrated by historical and contemporary examples of religious intolerance in the United States. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 345.

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: PHL 345

REL 350. *MODERN LATIN AMERICA. (4 Credits)

History of Latin America leading up to and after Spanish and Portuguese conquest. Focus on indigenous American, European and African cultures and religions in contact under colonial government and economic systems. Covers the period from 1400 to 1810. (H) (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 350.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: HST 350, HST 350H

REL 352. *AFRICANS IN LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY. (4 Credits)

A survey of the role of Africans and their descendants in Latin American history, linking the history of the Americas, Europe and Africa. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 352.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: HST 352

REL 364. *UNITED STATES RELIGION AND SOCIAL REFORM. (4 Credits)

Provides an awareness of how various religious groups have thought about and engaged with social change pertaining to slavery, feminism, civil rights, same-sex marriage, and immigration. Focus on reading primary sources related to each of these issues. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 364.

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: HST 364

REL 371. *PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA. (4 Credits)

A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 371.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 371, PHL 371H

REL 378. *RELIGION AND GENDER: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. (4 Credits)

Introduces students to the academic study of religion, as well as the academic study of gender. In order to offer a global perspective, we will read a series of case studies that deal with the religion as a gendered experience. Students will produce two essays, one of which will be based on independent research. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 378 and WGSS 378.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: HST 378, WGSS 378

REL 387. *ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. (4 Credits)

Political, social, and religious developments from 600 to 1400. Early history and the formation of Islamic society to the Mongol invasion. (H) (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 387.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: HST 387

REL 388. *ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. (4 Credits)

Political, social, and religious developments from 1400 to the present. The expansion of Islam, Turkic, and Asian dynasties, impact of Western imperialism and modern Islamic world. (H) (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 388.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: HST 388

REL 399. SPECIAL TOPICS. (1-4 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 12 credits.

REL 402. INDEPENDENT STUDY. (1-12 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

REL 405. READING AND CONFERENCE. (1-4 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 12 credits.

REL 407. ^SEMINAR. (1-16 Credits)

(Writing Intensive Course)

Attributes: CWIC – Core, Skills, WIC

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

REL 411. GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. (H) CROSSLISTED as PHL 411/PHL 511.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 411

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

REL 415. SELECTED TOPICS. (1-4 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 12 credits.

REL 425. *THE HOLOCAUST IN ITS HISTORY. (4 Credits)

An inquiry into the causes, course, and impact of the Holocaust. The general theme of anti-Semitism in European history is explored for background. Topics discussed for comparative purposes include anti-Semitism in American history; other episodes of mass murder in the 20th century. Not offered every year. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 425, HST 525.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: HST 425, HST 425H

REL 430. HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. (NC) CROSSLISTED as PHL 430/PHL 530.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 430, PHL 430H

REL 431. BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 431.

Equivalent to: PHL 431, PHL 431H

REL 432. *YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 432/PHL 532.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 432

REL 433. *THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MODERN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An examination of the phenomenon of modern yoga in theory and in practice. Emphasis on the roots of contemporary forms of yoga in the intersection between traditional Hindu and Buddhist formulations of yoga, Indian wrestling and martial arts, European gymnastics, and cosmopolitan conceptions of "bodily culture" of both European and Indian origins. CROSSLISTED as PHL 433, PHL 533. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 433

REL 434. *SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as PHL 434, PHL 534.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 434, PHL 434H, REL 434H

REL 434H. *SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as REL 434H, REL 534H.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 434, PHL 434H, REL 434

REL 436. PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. (3 Credits)

Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. CROSSLISTED as PHL 436/PHL 536.

Equivalent to: PHL 436

REL 443. *WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES. (3 Credits)

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 443, PHL 543.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 443, PHL 443H, REL 443H

REL 443H. *WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES. (3 Credits)

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 443H.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 443, PHL 443H, REL 443

REL 444. *BIOMEDICAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 444/PHL 544.

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 444, PHL 444H, REL 444H

REL 444H. *BIOMEDICAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 444, PHL 444H, REL 444

REL 448. NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES. (4 Credits)

Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. (NC) CROSSLISTED as ES 448/ES 548, PHL 448/PHL 548.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: ES 448, PHL 448

REL 455. DEATH AND DYING. (3 Credits)

A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 455, PHL 555.

Equivalent to: PHL 455

REL 461. ART AND MORALITY. (4 Credits)

The arts in context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. CROSSLISTED as PHL 461/PHL 561.

Equivalent to: PHL 461

REL 466. RELIGION AND U.S. FOREIGN RELATIONS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the intersection of religion and U.S. foreign relations from the late nineteenth century to the present. Surveys major events in U.S. diplomacy, including war and peace and explores the role of religion and religious ideas in shaping national identity, core values, and civil religion. CROSSLISTED as HST 466/HST 566.

Equivalent to: HST 466

REL 470. RELIGION IN THE AMERICAN WEST. (4 Credits)

The history of religion in the American West. Examines four themes in the religious history of the American West: locations (the designation of particular places as special), migrations (movement in and out of the region), adaptations (changes over time, in response to changing conditions), and discrimination (recognition of difference, as well as prejudicial treatment based on difference). Engages with various primary and secondary sources, including texts, films, and photographs. CROSSLISTED as HST 470.

Equivalent to: HST 470

REL 485. *POLITICS AND RELIGION IN THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST. (4 Credits)

The role of religious and secular ideologies in the politics of the 20th century Middle East. Topics include the impact of liberal and nationalist thought, the Iranian revolution, radical Islamist movements, and Zionism. (H) (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as HST 485/HST 585.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: HST 485

REL 511. GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 411/PHL 511.

Equivalent to: PHL 511

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

REL 525. THE HOLOCAUST IN ITS HISTORY. (4 Credits)

An inquiry into the causes, course, and impact of the Holocaust. The general theme of anti-Semitism in European history is explored for background. Topics discussed for comparative purposes include anti-Semitism in American history; other episodes of mass murder in the 20th century. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as HST 425, HST 525.

Equivalent to: HST 525

REL 530. HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. CROSSLISTED as PHL 430/PHL 530.

Equivalent to: PHL 530

REL 531. BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 531.

Equivalent to: PHL 531

REL 532. YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. CROSSLISTED as PHL 432/PHL 532.

Equivalent to: PHL 532

REL 533. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MODERN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An examination of the phenomenon of modern yoga in theory and in practice. Emphasis on the roots of contemporary forms of yoga in the intersection between traditional Hindu and Buddhist formulations of yoga, Indian wrestling and martial arts, European gymnastics, and cosmopolitan conceptions of "bodily culture" of both European and Indian origins. CROSSLISTED as PHL 433, PHL 533.

Equivalent to: PHL 533

REL 534. SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as PHL 434, PHL 534.

Equivalent to: PHL 534

REL 536. PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. (3 Credits)

Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. CROSSLISTED as PHL 436/PHL 536.

Equivalent to: PHL 536

REL 543. WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES. (3 Credits)

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. CROSSLISTED as PHL 443, PHL 543.

Equivalent to: PHL 543

REL 544. BIOMEDICAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. CROSSLISTED as PHL 444/PHL 544.

Equivalent to: PHL 544

REL 548. NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES. (4 Credits)

Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. CROSSLISTED as ES 448/ES 584, PHL 448/PHL 548.

Equivalent to: ES 548, PHL 548

REL 555. DEATH AND DYING. (3 Credits)

A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 455, PHL 555.

Equivalent to: PHL 555

REL 561. ART AND MORALITY. (4 Credits)

The arts in context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. CROSSLISTED as PHL 461/PHL 561.

Equivalent to: PHL 561

REL 566. RELIGION AND U.S. FOREIGN RELATIONS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the intersection of religion and U.S. foreign relations from the late nineteenth century to the present. Surveys major events in U.S. diplomacy, including war and peace and explores the role of religion and religious ideas in shaping national identity, core values, and civil religion. CROSSLISTED as HST 466/HST 566.

Equivalent to: HST 566

REL 570. RELIGION IN THE AMERICAN WEST. (4 Credits)

The history of religion in the American West. Examines four themes in the religious history of the American West: locations (the designation of particular places as special), migrations (movement in and out of the region), adaptations (changes over time, in response to changing conditions), and discrimination (recognition of difference, as well as prejudicial treatment based on difference). Engages with various primary and secondary sources, including texts, films, and photographs. CROSSLISTED as HST 570.

Equivalent to: HST 570

REL 585. POLITICS AND RELIGION IN THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST. (4 Credits)

The role of religious and secular ideologies in the politics of the 20th century Middle East. Topics include the impact of liberal and nationalist thought, the Iranian revolution, radical Islamist movements, and Zionism. CROSSLISTED as HST 485/HST 585.

Equivalent to: HST 585