Philosophy (PHL)

PHL 101. CRITICAL THINKING. (4 Credits)

Analysis of arguments, basic patterns of inductive and deductive reasoning, logical relations, and logical fallacies. Intended to improve analytical, critical and reasoning skills.

PHL 110. CRITICAL ANALYSIS. (3 Credits)

Development of a question-asking attitude for academic study. Enables students to explore issues and make informed decisions.

PHL 121. *REASONING AND WRITING. (3 Credits)

Develops critical thinking skills to increase clarity and effectiveness of student writing; uses writing experiences to teach critical thinking skills. Subjects include identifying and evaluating arguments, analyzing assumptions, justifying claims with reasons, avoiding confused or dishonest reasoning, applying common patterns of reasoning in everyday contexts, and writing cogent complex arguments. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSW2 – Core, Skills, WR II

PHL 150. *GREAT IDEAS IN PHILOSOPHY. (3 Credits)

Explores the assumptions and deeper meanings of familiar concepts and experiences. An introduction to some basic and famous ideas in Western thought. Topics may include truth, beauty, infinity, perception, freedom, pleasure, knowledge, mind and body, morality, justice, and political authority. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 160. *QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS. (4 Credits)

A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 160.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 160H, REL 160, REL 160H

PHL 160H. *QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS. (4 Credits)

A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 160.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 160, REL 160, REL 160H

PHL 170. *THE IDEA OF GOD. (4 Credits)

Concepts and images of God and their connections to world-views, experience, science, gender, society, self-understanding, and religions. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as PHL 170.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: REL 170

PHL 199. SPECIAL STUDIES. (1-16 Credits)

May be repeated for credit when topic varies.

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 201. *INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

An in-depth introduction to the methods and ideas of Western philosophy, concentrating on such great figures as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant and Nietzsche and such topics as the nature of reality, the existence of God, knowledge and doubt, the relation of consciousness to the world, free will and determinism, good and evil, and minds and machines. Philosophers and ideas covered will vary by the section. Written assignments are required. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 202. INTRODUCTION TO RELIGIOUS STUDIES. (4 Credits)

An introduction to the academic study of religion. It examines the concepts of religion and the sacred, approaches to the study of religion, ubiquitous features of religious experience, including symbol, myth, ritual, and community, understandings of the human condition in diverse religious traditions, and ways religious communities address challenges of pluralism and secularization. CROSSLISTED as REL 202.

Equivalent to: REL 202

PHL 203. *THE MEANING OF EXISTENCE. (4 Credits)

Introduction to existentialism; explores different philosophical approaches to the significance of human life, meaning, and freedom. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

PHL 205. *ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Introduction to ethical theory and to the evaluation of ethical issues in society such as sexual ethics and euthanasia. Includes the study of philosophical theories of moral responsibility and moral virtue, and the philosophical ideas behind ethics debates in society. Students are encouraged to develop their own positions on ethical issues through discussion projects and term papers. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 205H

PHL 205H. *ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Introduction to ethical theory and to the evaluation of ethical issues in society such as sexual ethics and euthanasia. Includes the study of philosophical theories of moral responsibility and moral virtue, and the philosophical ideas behind ethics debates in society. Students are encouraged to develop their own positions on ethical issues through discussion projects and term papers. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 205

PHL 206. *RELIGIOUS ETHICS AND MORAL PROBLEMS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the practical ethics of the monotheistic religious traditions of the West--Judaism, Christianity, Islam--and their different approaches to concrete moral problems. Topics include sexuality and marriage, euthanasia, capital punishment, pacifism and just war, and environmentalism. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 206.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: REL 206

PHL 207. *POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Introductory study of the philosophical justifications of political systems and philosophical theories about the rights and obligations of citizens and governments. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 207H

PHL 208. INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHIST TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

Survey of the historical development of Buddhism in India and its spread throughout Asia and beyond by investigating the literature, rituals, history and social structure of the Buddhist traditions of Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, Tibet and the Himalayan region, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and finally its growth in the West. CROSSLISTED as REL 208.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: REL 208

PHL 209. *SELF AND SOCIETY. (4 Credits)

An introduction to social philosophy, addresses the interactions between the development of personal identity (self) and social structures, including social relations, institutions, norms and values. Includes issues in philosophical anthropology (what it means to be human), social theories of the self, and perspectives from feminist philosophy, post-colonial studies, and non-Western contributions in so-cial philosophy. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPSI – Core, Pers, Soc Proc & Inst

PHL 210. *RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES. (4 Credits)

A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. CROSSLISTED as HST 210, REL 210. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: HST 210, HST 210H, PHL 210H, REL 210

PHL 210H. *RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES. (4 Credits)

A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. CROSSLISTED as HST 210H, REL 210H. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: HST 210, HST 210H, PHL 210, REL 210, REL 210H

PHL 213. *INTRODUCTION TO HINDU TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

Survey of the historical development of Hinduism in India and the "Hindu Diaspora." Topics will include the Indus Valley civilization, the Vedic tradition, yoga, and Hindu renunciation, "Classical" Hindu theism and devotion, Hindu philosophy and ritual, and modern and contemporary Hinduism. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 213.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: REL 213

PHL 214. *INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

Development of Islamic traditions in the Arab world and in the global context. Origins of Islam, the narrative of the Prophet Muhammad, the development of the Qur'an, and the central tenets of Islamic faith and practice. Transformation of Islam from a regional to a global tradition. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 214.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: REL 214

PHL 220. *WORLD-VIEWS AND VALUES IN THE BIBLE. (4 Credits)

A study of central portions of the Bible (in the Old Testament: Torah, prophets, psalms, and wisdom; in the New Testament: Jesus, gospels, and letters) from the perspective of the academic discipline of biblical scholarship, exploring the philosophical questions of the relationships between story, myth, thought, values, and understandings of life. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 220.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: REL 220

PHL 251. *KNOWERS, KNOWING, AND THE KNOWN. (4 Credits)

An introduction to the major debates in Western philosophy concerning the nature of reality, and the ways we come to know about that reality. One example concerns debates about the problem of skepticism: Is it possible that humans could be completely mistaken about the way the world is? Another example concerns debates about human identity and free will. Beginning with historical figures such as Descartes and Hume, the course also provides an introduction to more contemporary thinkers. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: PHL 251H

PHL 251H. *KNOWERS, KNOWING, AND THE KNOWN. (4 Credits)

An introduction to the major debates in Western philosophy concerning the nature of reality, and the ways we come to know about that reality. One example concerns debates about the problem of skepticism: Is it possible that humans could be completely mistaken about the way the world is? Another example concerns debates about human identity and free will. Beginning with historical figures such as Descartes and Hume, the course also provides an introduction to more contemporary thinkers. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 251

PHL 275. *INTRODUCTION TO DISABILITY STUDIES. (4 Credits)

Introduces core concepts and themes in the multidisciplinary field of disability studies. Analyzes disability as a product of discriminatory, oppressive, and inaccessible built environments and societies. Explores disability pride, culture, and community as alternatives to medical and charity models of disability. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

PHL 280. *ETHICS OF DIVERSITY. (4 Credits)

Uses moral philosophy to examine difference-based discrimination and prejudice in the human community. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 280H

PHL 280H. *ETHICS OF DIVERSITY. (4 Credits)

Uses moral philosophy to examine difference-based discrimination and prejudice in the human community. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 280

PHL 295. *FEMINISM AND THE BIBLE. (3 Credits)

Examines feminist interpretations of the Bible and pays special attention to intersections of race, social class, sexual identity, and nation in biblical interpretation. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as ENG 295, WGSS 295.

Attributes: CPLA – Core, Pers, Lit and Arts

Equivalent to: ENG 295, ENG 295H, PHL 295H, WGSS 295, WGSS 295H

PHL 295H. *FEMINISM AND THE BIBLE. (3 Credits)

Examines feminist interpretations of the Bible and pays special attention to intersections of race, social class, sexual identity, and nation in biblical interpretation. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as ENG 295, ENG 295H, WGSS 295, WGSS 295H.

Attributes: CPLA – Core, Pers, Lit and Arts; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: ENG 295, ENG 295H, PHL 295, WGSS 295, WGSS 295H

PHL 299. SELECTED TOPICS. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 99 credits.

PHL 301. *HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 302. *HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 303. *HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 309. *SELF AND SOCIETY. (4 Credits)

As introduction to social philosophy, addresses the interactions between the development of personal identity (self) and social structures, including social relations, institutions, norms and values. Includes issues in philosophical anthropology (what it means to be human), social theories of the self, and perspectives from feminist philosophy, post-colonial studies, and non-Western contributions in social philosophy. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPSI – Core, Pers, Soc Proc & Inst

PHL 310. *CRITICS OF RELIGION. (4 Credits)

An introduction to critiques of religion by Nietzsche, Freud, Marx, and other influential thinkers. Examines the nature, scope, and effects of criticisms that challenge the psychological, moral, political, and epistemological foundations of religious belief, practice, and institutions. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 310.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 310

PHL 312. *ASIAN THOUGHT. (4 Credits)

Familiarizes students with key figures in the history of Asian religious ideas and philosophy. While the emphasis will be on the philosophical traditions of Asia, it will quickly become apparent that philosophy and religion are not so easily distinguishable in many Asian traditions. Areas of thought studied will include Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 312.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: REL 312

PHL 315. *GANDHI AND NONVIOLENCE. (4 Credits)

An examination of the life and work of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the 20th century activist and author, and the theory and practice of nonviolence in his life and work. Emphasis will be placed upon Gandhi's biographical narrative, the development of satyagraha, Gandhi's nonviolent approach to social transformation, and post-Gandhian nonviolent movements. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 315.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: REL 315

PHL 316. INTELLECTUAL ISSUES OF MEXICO AND MEXICAN AMERICANS. (4 Credits)

The philosophical, social, cultural, and political reality of Mexican Americans and their historical roots in Mexico since the Spanish Conquest. Analysis of internal colonialism, racism, machismo, fatalism, alienation, cultural identity, as well as more contemporary including NAFTA, immigration, and U.S.-Mexican relations. (NC) CROSSLISTED as REL 316.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: REL 316

PHL 321. DEDUCTIVE LOGIC. (4 Credits)

Development of formal language and deductive systems for first-order, quantificational logic. Emphasis on translation of ordinary English statements into formal language. Discussion of the contrast between semantic and syntactic treatment of logical concepts.

PHL 325. *SCIENTIFIC REASONING. (4 Credits)

Introduction to and analysis of scientific reasoning. Emphasis on understanding and evaluation of theoretical hypotheses, causal and statistical models, and uses of scientific knowledge to make personal and public decisions. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society

PHL 342. CONTEMPORARY ETHICS. (4 Credits)

A study of significant ethical developments and issues in contemporary society, including ethical principles and concepts behind social debates on such matters as sexual ethics, abortion, discrimination, the uses of animals in scientific research, and responsibilities of corporations. Not offered every year. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 344. *PACIFISM, JUST WAR, AND TERRORISM. (4 Credits)

An examination of the philosophical and theological issues pertaining to pacifism, justified war, and forms of terrorism in Islamic and Western traditions. Special attention is given to concepts of jihad, justifications of war, and restraints on conduct in war. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 344.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 344

PHL 345. *FIRST FREEDOM: RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND INTOLERANCE. (4 Credits)

An examination of the religious, philosophical, political, and historical issues regarding religious freedom, conscience, and disestablishment as enshrined in the First Amendment and as illustrated by historical and contemporary examples of religious intolerance in the United States. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 345.

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: REL 345

PHL 360. *PHILOSOPHY AND THE ARTS. (4 Credits)

Major philosophical theories about art and its meaning, from ancient to modern times. How philosophers have understood beauty, the imagination, art and knowledge, art and pleasure, art and emotion. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 360H

PHL 360H. *PHILOSOPHY AND THE ARTS. (4 Credits)

Major philosophical theories about art and its meaning, from ancient to modern times. How philosophers have understood beauty, the imagination, art and knowledge, art and pleasure, art and emotion. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 360

PHL 365. *LAW IN PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE. (4 Credits)

A study of philosophical issues in the law through the examination of legal cases and major essays in jurisprudence. Special attention given to concepts of justice, responsibility, liberty, law, and legal ethics. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 371. *PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA. (4 Credits)

A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 371.

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 371H, REL 371

PHL 371H. *PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA. (4 Credits)

A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. (NC) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 371, REL 371

PHL 390. MORAL THEORIES. (3 Credits)

Examines the evolution of moral philosophy from the beginning of Western, Greek-based philosophy through contemporary moral theory, and will include philosophical questions about moral philosophy generally, virtue ethics, deontology, utilitarianism, environmental ethics, animal rights, and feminism and ecofeminism.

Prerequisites: PHL 205 with D- or better

PHL 399. SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY. (1-4 Credits)

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific philosophical problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception, philosophy of mind. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Equivalent to: PHL 399H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 399H. SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY. (1-4 Credits)

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific philosophical problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception, philosophy of mind. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every term.

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 399

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 402. INDEPENDENT STUDY. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 403. THESIS. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 405. READING AND CONFERENCE. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 407. ^SEMINAR. (1-16 Credits)

(Writing Intensive Course)

Attributes: CWIC – Core, Skills, WIC

Equivalent to: PHL 407H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 407H. ^SEMINAR. (1-16 Credits)

(Writing Intensive Course)

Attributes: CWIC – Core, Skills, WIC; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 407

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 410. INTERNSHIP. (1-12 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 411. GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. (H) CROSSLISTED as REL 411/REL 511.

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: REL 411

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 417. FEMINIST PHILOSOPHIES. (3 Credits)

Diverse forms of feminist philosophy, including a variety of critiques, especially those based on race and class, with in-depth consideration of selected social issues such as rape and pornography. CROSSLISTED as WGSS 417/WGSS 517. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: WGSS 417

PHL 421. MATHEMATICAL LOGIC. (3 Credits)

Rigorous definition of a formal logic and investigation of its characteristics. Emphasis on the distinction and relation between semantic and syntactic methods (model theory and proof theory) and on the meta-mathematical analysis of axiomatic theories. Not offered every year.

PHL 430. HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. (NC) CROSSLISTED as REL 430/REL 530.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 430H, REL 430

PHL 430H. HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. (NC)

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 430, REL 430

PHL 431. BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as REL 431.

Equivalent to: PHL 431H, REL 431

PHL 431H. BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by .

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 431, REL 431

PHL 432. *YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 432/REL 532.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 432

PHL 433. *THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MODERN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An examination of the phenomenon of modern yoga in theory and in practice. Emphasis on the roots of contemporary forms of yoga in the intersection between traditional Hindu and Buddhist formulations of yoga, Indian wrestling and martial arts, European gymnastics, and cosmopolitan conceptions of "bodily culture" of both European and Indian origins. CROSSLISTED as REL 433, REL 533. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 433

PHL 434. *SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as REL 434, REL 534.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 434H, REL 434, REL 434H

PHL 434H. *SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as REL 432H/REL 532H.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 434, REL 434, REL 434H

PHL 436. PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. (3 Credits)

Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. CROSSLISTED as REL 436/REL 536.

Equivalent to: REL 436

PHL 439. PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE. (3 Credits)

Intensive one-week field course taught in the Cascade Range. What is nature? What is the relation of humans to the rest of the natural world? How are our concepts of nature and decisions about land use shaped by the words and metaphors we use? What is the value of wild places? What can we learn from a close study of the natural world about right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic? The course will draw on many ways of knowing--philosophical analysis, close observation, and especially writing. Camping required.

PHL 440. *ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. (3 Credits)

Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships with parts of the non-human world and future generations, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics, philosophical problems in environmental ethics (such as the moral status of animals, plants, species, and ecosystems), the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups, and selected contemporary global environmental issues such as global warming and loss of biodiversity. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 440H

PHL 440H. *ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. (3 Credits)

Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships with parts of the non-human world and future generations, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics, philosophical problems in environmental ethics (such as the moral status of animals, plants, species, and ecosystems), the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups, and selected contemporary global environmental issues such as global warming and loss of biodiversity. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 440

PHL 443. *WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES. (3 Credits)

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. (Bacc Core Course) (NC) CROSSLISTED as REL 443, REL 543.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 443H, REL 443

PHL 443H. *WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES. (3 Credits)

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 443H.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 443, REL 443, REL 443H

PHL 444. *BIOMEDICAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. (H) (Bacc Core Course) CROSSLISTED as REL 444/REL 544.

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 444H, REL 444

PHL 444H. *BIOMEDICAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decision in medicine. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 444, REL 444

PHL 448. NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES. (4 Credits)

Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. (NC) CROSSLISTED as ES 448/ES 548, REL 448/REL 548.

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: ES 448, REL 448

PHL 450. TOPICS. (1-16 Credits)

Uses the IDEAS MATTER lectures as the focus for an exploration of ideas that make a difference in the world. Students read background materials, attend lectures, meet with the speakers, and write essays on the ideas they learn.

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 451. KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY. (3 Credits)

Examination of significant theories of knowledge, theories concerning the nature of reality, and their connections. Includes an analysis of important concepts and problems, such as perception, induction, belief, empiricism, rationalism, and skepticism. Not offered every year. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 455. DEATH AND DYING. (3 Credits)

A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as REL 455, REL 555.

Equivalent to: REL 455

PHL 456. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND. (4 Credits)

Past and present theories about consciousness, the relationship of mind and body, and the roots and implications of those theories. Includes historical "isms" (e.g., dualism, monism), contemporary views, and connections of these theories to further issues in philosophy and contemporary culture, e.g., desires, mental illness, personhood and otherness, animal minds, explanation, the mind in non-Western traditions and in religions.

PHL 461. ART AND MORALITY. (4 Credits)

The arts in the context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. CROSSLISTED as REL 461/REL 561.

Equivalent to: REL 461

PHL 470. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. (3 Credits)

Examination of philosophical questions, classic and contemporary, about science and scientific knowledge. Scientific explanations, the structure of theories, the concept of a natural law, revolutions in science, influences of the sciences and philosophy on one another, science and values. Not offered every year. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

PHL 474. ^PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY. (4 Credits)

An introduction to some of the conceptual challenges engendered by contemporary evolutionary biology, including the nature of fitness, natural selection, adaptations, and species; identifying organisms, traits, and the units of selection; the evidence required to support particular adaptive or historical hypotheses; and others. (Writing Intensive Course)

Attributes: CWIC – Core, Skills, WIC

PHL 499. TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY. (1-4 Credits)

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Equivalent to: PHL 499H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 499H. TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY. (1-4 Credits)

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 499

This course is repeatable for 4 credits.

PHL 501. RESEARCH. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 502. INDEPENDENT STUDY. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 503. THESIS. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 999 credits.

PHL 505. READING AND CONFERENCE. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 507. SEMINAR. (1-16 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 510. INTERNSHIP. (1-12 Credits)

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 511. GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as REL 411/REL 511.

Equivalent to: REL 511

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 517. FEMINIST PHILOSOPHIES. (3 Credits)

Diverse forms of feminist philosophy, including a variety of critiques, especially those based on race and class, with in-depth consideration of selected social issues such as rape and pornography. CROSSLISTED as WGSS 417/WGSS 517.

Equivalent to: WGSS 517

PHL 525. PHILOSOPHICAL METHODS. (3 Credits)

Examines diverse ways of approaching philosophical issues. Contains readings from different philosophical traditions. Develops understanding of the skills and conventions of philosophical argumentation.

PHL 530. HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY. (4 Credits)

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. CROSSLISTED as REL 430/REL 530.

Equivalent to: REL 530

PHL 531. BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE. (4 Credits)

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as REL 431.

Equivalent to: REL 531

PHL 532. YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS. (4 Credits)

An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. CROSSLISTED as REL 432/REL 532.

Equivalent to: REL 532

PHL 533. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MODERN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An examination of the phenomenon of modern yoga in theory and in practice. Emphasis on the roots of contemporary forms of yoga in the intersection between traditional Hindu and Buddhist formulations of yoga, Indian wrestling and martial arts, European gymnastics, and cosmopolitan conceptions of "bodily culture" of both European and Indian origins. CROSSLISTED as REL 433, REL 533.

Equivalent to: REL 533

PHL 534. SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA. (4 Credits)

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as REL 434, REL 534.

Equivalent to: REL 534

PHL 536. PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION. (3 Credits)

Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. CROSSLISTED as REL 436/REL 536.

Equivalent to: REL 536

PHL 539. PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE. (3 Credits)

Intensive one-week field course taught in the Cascade Range. What is nature? What is the relation of humans to the rest of the natural world? How are our concepts of nature and decisions about land use shaped by the words and metaphors we use? What is the value of wild places? What can we learn from a close study of the natural world about right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic? The course will draw on many ways of knowing--philosophical analysis, close observation, and especially writing. Camping required.

PHL 540. ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. (3 Credits)

Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships with parts of the non-human world and future generations, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics, philosophical problems in environmental ethics (such as the moral status of animals, plants, species, and ecosystems), the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups, and selected contemporary global environmental issues such as global warming and loss of biodiversity.

PHL 541. CLASSIC MORAL THEORIES. (3 Credits)

Philosophical issues in ethics analyzed through the examination of such classical works in moral philosophy as Aristotle's Nichomachean ethics. Not offered every year.

PHL 542. CONTEMPORARY MORAL THEORIES. (3 Credits)

Examines contemporary ethical theories through study of moral philosophy in the 20th century, including recent developments in such areas as environmental ethics and feminist/feminine ethics.

PHL 543. WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES. (3 Credits)

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. CROSSLISTED as REL 443, REL 543.

Equivalent to: REL 543

PHL 544. BIOMEDICAL ETHICS. (4 Credits)

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. CROSSLISTED as REL 444/REL 544.

Equivalent to: REL 544

PHL 547. RESEARCH ETHICS. (3 Credits)

An examination of the interrelationship between ethical values and scientific practice. Topics include professionalism in science; scientific integrity, misconduct, and whistleblowing; the ethics of authorship; conflicts of interest between academic science and commercial science, and social responsibilities in science.

PHL 548. NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES. (4 Credits)

Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. CROSSLISTED as ES 448/ES 548, REL 448/REL 548.

Equivalent to: ES 548, REL 548

PHL 550. TOPICS. (1-16 Credits)

Uses the IDEAS MATTER lectures as the focus for an exploration of ideas that make a difference in the world. Students read background materials, attend lectures, meet with the speakers, and write essays on the ideas they learn.

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 551. KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY. (3 Credits)

Examination of significant theories of knowledge, theories concerning the nature of reality, and their connections. Includes an analysis of important concepts and problems, such as perception, induction, belief, empiricism, rationalism, and skepticism. Not offered every year.

PHL 555. DEATH AND DYING. (3 Credits)

A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as REL 455, REL 555.

Equivalent to: REL 555

PHL 556. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND. (4 Credits)

Past and present theories about consciousness, the relationship of mind and body, and the roots and implications of those theories. Includes historical "isms" (e.g., dualism, monism), contemporary views, and connections of these theories to further issues in philosophy and contemporary culture, e.g., desires, mental illness, personhood and otherness, animal minds, explanation, the mind in non-Western traditions and in religions.

PHL 561. ART AND MORALITY. (4 Credits)

The arts in the context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. CROSSLISTED as REL 461/REL 561.

Equivalent to: REL 561

PHL 570. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE. (3 Credits)

Examination of philosophical questions, classic and contemporary, about science and scientific knowledge. Scientific explanations, the structure of theories, the concept of a natural law, revolutions in science, influences of the sciences and philosophy on one another, science and values. Not offered every year.

PHL 574. PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY. (4 Credits)

An introduction to some of the conceptual challenges engendered by contemporary evolutionary biology, including the nature of fitness, natural selection, adaptations, and species; identifying organisms, traits, and the units of selection; the evidence required to support particular adaptive or historical hypotheses; and others.

PHL 599. TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY. (1-4 Credits)

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.