Philosophy (PHL)

PHL 121, *REASONING AND WRITING, 3 Credits

Develops critical thinking skills to increase clarity and effectiveness of student writing; uses writing experiences to teach critical thinking skills. Subjects include identifying and evaluating arguments, analyzing assumptions, justifying claims with reasons, avoiding confused or dishonest reasoning, applying common patterns of reasoning in everyday contexts, and writing cogent complex arguments. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSW2 – Core, Skills, WR II

Equivalent to: PHL 121H

Available via Ecampus

PHL 150, *GREAT IDEAS IN PHILOSOPHY, 3 Credits

Explores the assumptions and deeper meanings of familiar concepts and experiences. An introduction to some basic and famous ideas in Western thought. Topics may include truth, beauty, infinity, perception, freedom, pleasure, knowledge, mind and body, morality, justice, and political authority. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Available via Ecampus

PHL 160, *QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS, 4 Credits

A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. CROSSLISTED as PHL 160/REL 160. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 160H, REL 160, REL 160H

Available via Ecampus

PHL 160H, *QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS, 4 Credits

A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. CROSSLISTED as PHL 160/REL 160. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 160, REL 160, REL 160H

PHL 170, *THE IDEA OF GOD, 4 Credits

Concepts and images of God and their connections to world-views, experience, science, gender, society, self-understanding, and religions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 170/REL 170. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: REL 170

PHL 199, SPECIAL STUDIES, 1-16 Credits

May be repeated for credit when topic varies.

Equivalent to: PHL 199H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 201, *INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

An in-depth introduction to the methods and ideas of Western philosophy, concentrating on such great figures as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant and Nietzsche and such topics as the nature of reality, the existence of God, knowledge and doubt, the relation of consciousness to the world, free will and determinism, good and evil, and minds and machines. Philosophers and ideas covered will vary by the section. Written assignments are required. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Available via Ecampus

PHL 202, INTRODUCTION TO RELIGIOUS STUDIES, 4 Credits

An introduction to the academic study of religion. It examines the concepts of religion and the sacred, approaches to the study of religion, ubiquitous features of religious experience, including symbol, myth, ritual, and community, understandings of the human condition in diverse religious traditions, and ways religious communities address challenges of pluralism and secularization. CROSSLISTED as PHL 202/REL 202.

Equivalent to: REL 202

Available via Ecampus

PHL 203, *THE MEANING OF EXISTENCE, 4 Credits

Introduction to existentialism; explores different philosophical approaches to the significance of human life, meaning, and freedom. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

PHL 205, *ETHICS, 4 Credits

Introduction to ethical theory and to the evaluation of ethical issues in society such as sexual ethics and euthanasia. Includes the study of philosophical theories of moral responsibility and moral virtue, and the philosophical ideas behind ethics debates in society. Students are encouraged to develop their own positions on ethical issues through discussion projects and term papers. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 205H

Available via Ecampus

PHL 205H, *ETHICS, 4 Credits

Introduction to ethical theory and to the evaluation of ethical issues in society such as sexual ethics and euthanasia. Includes the study of philosophical theories of moral responsibility and moral virtue, and the philosophical ideas behind ethics debates in society. Students are encouraged to develop their own positions on ethical issues through discussion projects and term papers. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 205

PHL 206, *RELIGIOUS ETHICS AND MORAL PROBLEMS, 4 Credits

An examination of the practical ethics of the monotheistic religious traditions of the West--Judaism, Christianity, Islam--and their different approaches to concrete moral problems. Topics include sexuality and marriage, euthanasia, capital punishment, pacifism and just war, and environmentalism. CROSSLISTED as PHL 206/REL 206. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: REL 206

PHL 207, *POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

Introductory study of the philosophical justifications of political systems and philosophical theories about the rights and obligations of citizens and governments. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 207H

Available via Ecampus

PHL 208, INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHIST TRADITIONS, 4 Credits

Survey of the historical development of Buddhism in India and its spread throughout Asia and beyond by investigating the literature, rituals, history and social structure of the Buddhist traditions of Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, Tibet and the Himalayan region, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and finally its growth in the West. CROSSLISTED as PHL 208/REL 208. (NC)

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: REL 208

Available via Ecampus

PHL 209, *SELF AND SOCIETY, 4 Credits

An introduction to social philosophy, addresses the interactions between the development of personal identity (self) and social structures, including social relations, institutions, norms and values. Includes issues in philosophical anthropology (what it means to be human), social theories of the self, and perspectives from feminist philosophy, post-colonial studies, and non-Western contributions in so-cial philosophy. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPSI – Core, Pers, Soc Proc & Inst

PHL 210, *RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES, 4 Credits

A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. CROSSLISTED as HST 210/PHL 210/REL 210. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: HST 210, HST 210H, PHL 210H, REL 210

Available via Ecampus

PHL 210H, *RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES, 4 Credits

A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. CROSSLISTED as HST 210/PHL 210/REL 210. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: HST 210, HST 210H, PHL 210, REL 210, REL 210H

PHL 213, *INTRODUCTION TO HINDU TRADITIONS, 4 Credits

Survey of the historical development of Hinduism in India and the "Hindu Diaspora." Topics will include the Indus Valley civilization, the Vedic tradition, yoga, and Hindu renunciation, "Classical" Hindu theism and devotion, Hindu philosophy and ritual, and modern and contemporary Hinduism. CROSSLISTED as PHL 213/REL 213. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: REL 213

Available via Ecampus

PHL 214, *INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC TRADITIONS, 4 Credits

Development of Islamic traditions in the Arab world and in the global context. Origins of Islam, the narrative of the Prophet Muhammad, the development of the Qur'an, and the central tenets of Islamic faith and practice. Transformation of Islam from a regional to a global tradition. CROSSLISTED as PHL 214/REL 214. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: REL 214

Available via Ecampus

PHL 220, *WORLD-VIEWS AND VALUES IN THE BIBLE, 4 Credits

A study of central portions of the Bible (in the Old Testament: Torah, prophets, psalms, and wisdom; in the New Testament: Jesus, gospels, and letters) from the perspective of the academic discipline of biblical scholarship, exploring the philosophical questions of the relationships between story, myth, thought, values, and understandings of life. CROSSLISTED as PHL 220/REL 220. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 220H, REL 220

Available via Ecampus

PHL 234, *PHILOSOPHY OF HAPPINESS, 3 Credits

Explores various philosophical and psychological approaches to happiness and how culturally specific ideas of happiness have shaped the social and cultural realities around the world. Explores the human need for happiness within cultures. Examines happiness through the writings of the greatest Eastern and Western philosophers. Analyzes research on happiness within positive psychology.

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

PHL 251, *KNOWERS, KNOWING, AND THE KNOWN, 4 Credits

An introduction to the major debates in Western philosophy concerning the nature of reality, and the ways we come to know about that reality. One example concerns debates about the problem of skepticism: Is it possible that humans could be completely mistaken about the way the world is? Another example concerns debates about human identity and free will. Beginning with historical figures such as Descartes and Hume, the course also provides an introduction to more contemporary thinkers. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture

Equivalent to: PHL 251H

PHL 251H, *KNOWERS, KNOWING, AND THE KNOWN, 4 Credits

An introduction to the major debates in Western philosophy concerning the nature of reality, and the ways we come to know about that reality. One example concerns debates about the problem of skepticism: Is it possible that humans could be completely mistaken about the way the world is? Another example concerns debates about human identity and free will. Beginning with historical figures such as Descartes and Hume, the course also provides an introduction to more contemporary thinkers. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 251

PHL 275, *INTRODUCTION TO DISABILITY STUDIES, 4 Credits

Introduces core concepts and themes in the multidisciplinary field of disability studies. Analyzes disability as a product of discriminatory, oppressive, and inaccessible built environments and societies. Explores disability pride, culture, and community as alternatives to medical and charity models of disability. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: PHL 275H

Available via Ecampus

PHL 275H, *INTRODUCTION TO DISABILITY STUDIES, 4 Credits

Introduces core concepts and themes in the multidisciplinary field of disability studies. Analyzes disability as a product of discriminatory, oppressive, and inaccessible built environments and societies. Explores disability pride, culture, and community as alternatives to medical and charity models of disability. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 275

PHL 280, *ETHICS OF DIVERSITY, 4 Credits

Uses moral philosophy to examine difference-based discrimination and prejudice in the human community. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 280H

PHL 280H, *ETHICS OF DIVERSITY, 4 Credits

Uses moral philosophy to examine difference-based discrimination and prejudice in the human community. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 280

PHL 295, *FEMINISM AND THE BIBLE, 3 Credits

Examines feminist interpretations of the Bible and pays special attention to intersections of race, social class, sexual identity, and nation in biblical interpretation. CROSSLISTED as ENG 295/PHL 295/WGSS 295. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPLA – Core, Pers, Lit and Arts

Equivalent to: ENG 295, ENG 295H, PHL 295H, WGSS 295, WGSS 295H

PHL 295H, *FEMINISM AND THE BIBLE, 3 Credits

Examines feminist interpretations of the Bible and pays special attention to intersections of race, social class, sexual identity, and nation in biblical interpretation. CROSSLISTED as ENG 295/PHL 295/WGSS 295. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPLA – Core, Pers, Lit and Arts; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: ENG 295, ENG 295H, PHL 295, WGSS 295, WGSS 295H

PHL 299, SELECTED TOPICS, 1-16 Credits

Equivalent to: PHL 299H

This course is repeatable for 99 credits.

PHL 301, *HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy

Available via Ecampus

PHL 302, *HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy

PHL 303, *HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy

PHL 309, *SELF AND SOCIETY, 4 Credits

As introduction to social philosophy, addresses the interactions between the development of personal identity (self) and social structures, including social relations, institutions, norms and values. Includes issues in philosophical anthropology (what it means to be human), social theories of the self, and perspectives from feminist philosophy, post-colonial studies, and non-Western contributions in social philosophy. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPSI – Core, Pers, Soc Proc & Inst

Recommended: Sophomore standing

PHL 310, *CRITICS OF RELIGION, 4 Credits

An introduction to critiques of religion by Nietzsche, Freud, Marx, and other influential thinkers. Examines the nature, scope, and effects of criticisms that challenge the psychological, moral, political, and epistemological foundations of religious belief, practice, and institutions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 310/REL 310. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 310

PHL 315, *GANDHI AND NONVIOLENCE, 4 Credits

An examination of the life and work of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the 20th century activist and author, and the theory and practice of nonviolence in his life and work. Emphasis will be placed upon Gandhi's biographical narrative, the development of satyagraha, Gandhi's nonviolent approach to social transformation, and post-Gandhian nonviolent movements. CROSSLISTED as PHL 315/REL 315. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity

Equivalent to: PHL 315H, REL 315

Available via Ecampus

PHL 316, INTELLECTUAL ISSUES OF MEXICO AND MEXICAN AMERICANS, 4 Credits

The philosophical, social, cultural, and political reality of Mexican Americans and their historical roots in Mexico since the Spanish Conquest. Analysis of internal colonialism, racism, machismo, fatalism, alienation, cultural identity, as well as more contemporary including NAFTA, immigration, and U.S.-Mexican relations. CROSSLISTED as PHL 316/REL 316. (NC)

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: REL 316

PHL 321, DEDUCTIVE LOGIC, 4 Credits

Development of formal language and deductive systems for first-order, quantificational logic. Emphasis on translation of ordinary English statements into formal language. Discussion of the contrast between semantic and syntactic treatment of logical concepts.

Recommended: Upper-division standing or PHL 101.

PHL 325, *SCIENTIFIC REASONING, 4 Credits

Introduction to and analysis of scientific reasoning. Emphasis on understanding and evaluation of theoretical hypotheses, causal and statistical models, and uses of scientific knowledge to make personal and public decisions. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society

Equivalent to: PHL 325H

PHL 330, *TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS, 3 Credits

Develops ethical reasoning skills crucial for future technical professionals. Explores philosophical questions that arise where technology, humans, and society interact, and thereby constructs a critical lens to analyze decision alternatives. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society

Recommended: Upper division standing

PHL 342, CONTEMPORARY ETHICS, 4 Credits

A study of significant ethical developments and issues in contemporary society, including ethical principles and concepts behind social debates on such matters as sexual ethics, abortion, discrimination, the uses of animals in scientific research, and responsibilities of corporations. Not offered every year. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: PHL 205

PHL 344, *PACIFISM, JUST WAR, AND TERRORISM, 4 Credits

An examination of the philosophical and theological issues pertaining to pacifism, justified war, and forms of terrorism in Islamic and Western traditions. Special attention is given to concepts of jihad, justifications of war, and restraints on conduct in war. CROSSLISTED as PHL 344/REL 344. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 344H, REL 344

PHL 345, *FIRST FREEDOM: RELIGIOUS LIBERTY AND INTOLERANCE, 4 Credits

An examination of the religious, philosophical, political, and historical issues regarding religious freedom, conscience, and disestablishment as enshrined in the First Amendment and as illustrated by historical and contemporary examples of religious intolerance in the United States. CROSSLISTED as PHL 345/REL 345. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPDP – Core, Perspective, Difference/Power/Discrimination

Equivalent to: REL 345

PHL 360, *PHILOSOPHY AND THE ARTS, 4 Credits

Major philosophical theories about art and its meaning, from ancient to modern times. How philosophers have understood beauty, the imagination, art and knowledge, art and pleasure, art and emotion. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 360H

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing

Available via Ecampus

PHL 360H, *PHILOSOPHY AND THE ARTS, 4 Credits

Major philosophical theories about art and its meaning, from ancient to modern times. How philosophers have understood beauty, the imagination, art and knowledge, art and pleasure, art and emotion. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 360

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing

PHL 365, *LAW IN PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE, 4 Credits

A study of philosophical issues in the law through the examination of legal cases and major essays in jurisprudence. Special attention given to concepts of justice, responsibility, liberty, law, and legal ethics. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPWC – Core, Pers, West Culture; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

PHL 371, *PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA, 4 Credits

A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 371/REL 371. (NC) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 371H, REL 371

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

Available via Ecampus

PHL 371H, *PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA, 4 Credits

A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 371/REL 371. (NC) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CPCD – Core, Pers, Cult Diversity; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 371, REL 371

Recommended: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing

PHL 390, MORAL THEORIES, 3 Credits

Examines the evolution of moral philosophy from the beginning of Western, Greek-based philosophy through contemporary moral theory, and will include philosophical questions about moral philosophy generally, virtue ethics, deontology, utilitarianism, environmental ethics, animal rights, and feminism and ecofeminism.

Prerequisite: PHL 205 with D- or better

PHL 399, SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY, 1-4 Credits

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific philosophical problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception, philosophy of mind. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Equivalent to: PHL 399H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: 3 credits of upper-division philosophy

PHL 399H, SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY, 1-4 Credits

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific philosophical problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception, philosophy of mind. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every term.

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 399

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: 3 credits of upper-division philosophy

PHL 402, INDEPENDENT STUDY, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Available via Ecampus

PHL 403, THESIS, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 405, READING AND CONFERENCE, 1-16 Credits

Equivalent to: PHL 405H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: Sophomore standing

PHL 407, ^SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits

(Writing Intensive Course)

Attributes: CWIC – Core, Skills, WIC

Equivalent to: PHL 407H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: Two upper-division philosophy courses and sophomore standing

PHL 407H, ^SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits

(Writing Intensive Course)

Attributes: CWIC – Core, Skills, WIC; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 407

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: Two upper-division philosophy courses and sophomore standing

PHL 410, INTERNSHIP, 1-12 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 411, GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 411/REL 411 and PHL 511/REL 511. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: REL 411

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

PHL 417, FEMINIST PHILOSOPHIES, 3 Credits

Diverse forms of feminist philosophy, including a variety of critiques, especially those based on race and class, with in-depth consideration of selected social issues such as rape and pornography. CROSSLISTED as PHL 417/WGSS 417 and PHL 517/WGSS 517. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: WGSS 417, WS 417

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

PHL 421, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, 3 Credits

Rigorous definition of a formal logic and investigation of its characteristics. Emphasis on the distinction and relation between semantic and syntactic methods (model theory and proof theory) and on the meta-mathematical analysis of axiomatic theories. Not offered every year.

Recommended: PHL 321 or 6 credits of 400-level mathematics or computer science and sophomore standing.

PHL 430, HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. CROSSLISTED as PHL 430/REL 430 and PHL 530/REL 530. (NC)

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 430H, REL 430

PHL 430H, HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. CROSSLISTED as PHL 430/REL 430 and PHL 530/REL 530. (NC)

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 430, REL 430

PHL 431, BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE, 4 Credits

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 431/REL 431 and PHL 531/REL 531.

Equivalent to: PHL 431H, REL 431

PHL 431H, BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE, 4 Credits

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 431/REL 431 and PHL 531/REL 531.

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 431, REL 431

PHL 432, *YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS, 4 Credits

An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. CROSSLISTED as PHL 432/REL 432 and PHL 532/REL 532. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 432

PHL 433, *THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MODERN YOGA, 4 Credits

An examination of the phenomenon of modern yoga in theory and in practice. Emphasis on the roots of contemporary forms of yoga in the intersection between traditional Hindu and Buddhist formulations of yoga, Indian wrestling and martial arts, European gymnastics, and cosmopolitan conceptions of "bodily culture" of both European and Indian origins. CROSSLISTED as PHL 433/REL 433 and PHL 533/REL 533. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: REL 433

PHL 434, *SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA, 4 Credits

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as PHL 434/REL 434 and PHL 534/REL 534.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues

Equivalent to: PHL 434H, REL 434, REL 434H

PHL 434H, *SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA, 4 Credits

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as PHL 434/REL 434 and PHL 534/REL 534.

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 434, REL 434, REL 434H

PHL 436, PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION, 3 Credits

Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. CROSSLISTED as PHL 436/REL 436 and PHL 536/REL 536.

Equivalent to: REL 436

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

PHL 440, *ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, 3 Credits

Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships with parts of the non-human world and future generations, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics, philosophical problems in environmental ethics (such as the moral status of animals, plants, species, and ecosystems), the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups, and selected contemporary global environmental issues such as global warming and loss of biodiversity. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 440H

Recommended: PHL 205 and PHL 342 and PHL 365 or 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Available via Ecampus

PHL 440H, *ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, 3 Credits

Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships with parts of the non-human world and future generations, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics, philosophical problems in environmental ethics (such as the moral status of animals, plants, species, and ecosystems), the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups, and selected contemporary global environmental issues such as global warming and loss of biodiversity. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 440

Recommended: PHL 205 and PHL 342 and PHL 365 or 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing

PHL 443, *WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, 3 Credits

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. CROSSLISTED as PHL 443/REL 443 and PHL 543/REL 543. (Bacc Core Course) (NC)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 443H, REL 443, REL 443H

Recommended: One introductory-level science course and sophomore standing.

Available via Ecampus

PHL 443H, *WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, 3 Credits

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. CROSSLISTED as PHL 443/REL 443 and PHL 543/REL 543. (Bacc Core Course) (NC)

Attributes: CSGI – Core, Synth, Global Issues; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: PHL 443, REL 443, REL 443H

Recommended: One introductory-level science course and sophomore standing

PHL 444, *BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, 4 Credits

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. CROSSLISTED as PHL 444/REL 444 and REL 544/REL 544. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 444H, REL 444, REL 444H

Available via Ecampus

PHL 444H, *BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, 4 Credits

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. CROSSLISTED as PHL 444/REL 444 and REL 544/REL 544. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; HNRS – Honors Course Designator; LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Equivalent to: PHL 444, REL 444, REL 444H

PHL 448, NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES, 4 Credits

Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. CROSSLISTED as ES 448/PHL 448/REL 448 and ES 548/PHL 548/REL 548. (NC)

Attributes: LACN – Liberal Arts Non-Western Core

Equivalent to: ES 448, REL 448

PHL 450, TOPICS, 1-16 Credits

Uses the IDEAS MATTER lectures as the focus for an exploration of ideas that make a difference in the world. Students read background materials, attend lectures, meet with the speakers, and write essays on the ideas they learn.

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 451, KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY, 3 Credits

Examination of significant theories of knowledge, theories concerning the nature of reality, and their connections. Includes an analysis of important concepts and problems, such as perception, induction, belief, empiricism, rationalism, and skepticism. Not offered every year. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy, sophomore standing.

PHL 455, DEATH AND DYING, 3 Credits

A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 455/REL 455 and PHL 555/REL 555.

Equivalent to: REL 455

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy or sophomore standing

PHL 456, *MINDS, BRAINS, AND MACHINES, 4 Credits

Past and present theories about consciousness, the relationship of mind and body, minds in human and non human animals, and the roots and implications of those theories. Includes historical foundations in philosophy (e.g., dualism, monism) and contemporary philosophical approaches. Contemporary issues emphasize computational models of thought, extended cognition and the future of personhood, intelligence and artificial intelligence (e.g., decision and agency in artificial intelligence), ethical issues of artificial intelligence (e.g., autonomous cars, autonomous weaponry, health monitoring and privacy).

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society

Recommended: PHL 251

PHL 461, ART AND MORALITY, 4 Credits

The arts in the context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. CROSSLISTED as PHL 461/REL 461 and PHL 561/REL 561.

Equivalent to: REL 461

PHL 470, PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, 3 Credits

Examination of philosophical questions, classic and contemporary, about science and scientific knowledge. Scientific explanations, the structure of theories, the concept of a natural law, revolutions in science, influences of the sciences and philosophy on one another, science and values. Not offered every year. (H)

Attributes: LACH – Liberal Arts Humanities Core

Recommended: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy and sophomore standing

PHL 474, *PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY, 4 Credits

An introduction to some of the conceptual challenges engendered by contemporary evolutionary biology, including the nature of fitness, natural selection, adaptations, and species; identifying organisms, traits, and the units of selection; the evidence required to support particular adaptive or historical hypotheses; and others. (Bacc Core Course)

Attributes: CSST – Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society

Recommended: Previous university-level coursework in either philosophy or the biological sciences

PHL 499, TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY, 1-4 Credits

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Equivalent to: PHL 499H

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy, sophomore standing.

PHL 499H, TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY, 1-4 Credits

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Attributes: HNRS – Honors Course Designator

Equivalent to: PHL 499

This course is repeatable for 4 credits.

Recommended: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy, sophomore standing

PHL 501, RESEARCH, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 502, INDEPENDENT STUDY, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 503, THESIS, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 999 credits.

PHL 505, READING AND CONFERENCE, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 507, SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: Two upper-division philosophy courses

PHL 510, INTERNSHIP, 1-12 Credits

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 511, GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 411/REL 411 and PHL 511/REL 511.

Equivalent to: REL 511

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy

PHL 517, FEMINIST PHILOSOPHIES, 3 Credits

Diverse forms of feminist philosophy, including a variety of critiques, especially those based on race and class, with in-depth consideration of selected social issues such as rape and pornography. CROSSLISTED as PHL 417/WGSS 417 and PHL 517/WGSS 517.

Equivalent to: WGSS 517, WS 517

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy

PHL 525, PHILOSOPHICAL METHODS, 3 Credits

Examines diverse ways of approaching philosophical issues. Contains readings from different philosophical traditions. Develops understanding of the skills and conventions of philosophical argumentation.

PHL 530, HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY, 4 Credits

Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. CROSSLISTED as PHL 430/REL 430 and PHL 530/REL 530.

Equivalent to: REL 530

PHL 531, BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE, 4 Credits

Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists" living Buddhist traditions. CROSSLISTED as PHL 431/REL 431 and PHL 531/REL 531.

Equivalent to: REL 531

PHL 532, YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS, 4 Credits

An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. CROSSLISTED as PHL 432/REL 432 and PHL 532/REL 532.

Equivalent to: REL 532

PHL 533, THEORY AND PRACTICE OF MODERN YOGA, 4 Credits

An examination of the phenomenon of modern yoga in theory and in practice. Emphasis on the roots of contemporary forms of yoga in the intersection between traditional Hindu and Buddhist formulations of yoga, Indian wrestling and martial arts, European gymnastics, and cosmopolitan conceptions of "bodily culture" of both European and Indian origins. CROSSLISTED as PHL 433/REL 433 and PHL 533/REL 533.

Equivalent to: REL 533

PHL 534, SPIRITUALITY AND ECOLOGY: GREEN YOGA, 4 Credits

An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and ecological engagement in traditional contexts and in contemporary spirituality, with a global focus on contemplative practices rooted in Indian tradition, such as yoga. CROSSLISTED as PHL 434/REL 434 and PHL 534/REL 534.

Equivalent to: REL 534

PHL 536, PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION, 3 Credits

Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. CROSSLISTED as PHL 436/REL 436 and PHL 536/REL 536.

Equivalent to: REL 536

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy

PHL 540, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, 3 Credits

Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships with parts of the non-human world and future generations, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics, philosophical problems in environmental ethics (such as the moral status of animals, plants, species, and ecosystems), the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups, and selected contemporary global environmental issues such as global warming and loss of biodiversity.

Recommended: PHL 205 and PHL 342 and PHL 365 or 6 credits of philosophy

Available via Ecampus

PHL 541, CLASSIC MORAL THEORIES, 3 Credits

Philosophical issues in ethics analyzed through the examination of such classical works in moral philosophy as Aristotle's Nichomachean ethics. Not offered every year.

Recommended: Either PHL 205 or PHL 342 or PHL 440 or one course in the history of philosophy.

PHL 542, CONTEMPORARY MORAL THEORIES, 3 Credits

Examines contemporary ethical theories through study of moral philosophy in the 20th century, including recent developments in such areas as environmental ethics and feminist/feminine ethics.

Recommended: At least two philosophy courses including at least one of PHL 205 or PHL 342 or PHL 541.

PHL 543, WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES, 3 Credits

A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. CROSSLISTED as PHL 443/REL 443 and PHL 543/REL 543.

Equivalent to: REL 543

Recommended: One introductory-level science course

Available via Ecampus

PHL 544, BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, 4 Credits

Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. CROSSLISTED as PHL 444/REL 444 and REL 544/REL 544.

Equivalent to: REL 544

Available via Ecampus

PHL 547, RESEARCH ETHICS, 3 Credits

An examination of the interrelationship between ethical values and scientific practice. Topics include professionalism in science; scientific integrity, misconduct, and whistleblowing; the ethics of authorship; conflicts of interest between academic science and commercial science, and social responsibilities in science.

PHL 548, NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES, 4 Credits

Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. CROSSLISTED as ES 448/PHL 448/REL 448 and ES 548/PHL 548/REL 548.

Equivalent to: ES 548, REL 548

PHL 550, TOPICS, 1-16 Credits

Uses the IDEAS MATTER lectures as the focus for an exploration of ideas that make a difference in the world. Students read background materials, attend lectures, meet with the speakers, and write essays on the ideas they learn.

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

PHL 551, KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY, 3 Credits

Examination of significant theories of knowledge, theories concerning the nature of reality, and their connections. Includes an analysis of important concepts and problems, such as perception, induction, belief, empiricism, rationalism, and skepticism. Not offered every year.

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy

PHL 555, DEATH AND DYING, 3 Credits

A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. CROSSLISTED as PHL 455/REL 455 and PHL 555/REL 555.

Equivalent to: REL 555

Recommended: 6 credits of philosophy

PHL 556, MINDS, BRAINS, AND MACHINES, 4 Credits

Past and present theories about consciousness, the relationship of mind and body, minds in human and non human animals, and the roots and implications of those theories. Includes historical foundations in philosophy (e.g., dualism, monism) and contemporary philosophical approaches. Contemporary issues emphasize computational models of thought, extended cognition and the future of personhood, intelligence and artificial intelligence (e.g., decision and agency in artificial intelligence), ethical issues of artificial intelligence (e.g., autonomous cars, autonomous weaponry, health monitoring and privacy).

PHL 561, ART AND MORALITY, 4 Credits

The arts in the context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. CROSSLISTED as PHL 461/REL 461 and PHL 561/REL 561.

Equivalent to: REL 561

PHL 570, PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, 3 Credits

Examination of philosophical questions, classic and contemporary, about science and scientific knowledge. Scientific explanations, the structure of theories, the concept of a natural law, revolutions in science, influences of the sciences and philosophy on one another, science and values. Not offered every year.

Recommended: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy

PHL 574, PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY, 4 Credits

An introduction to some of the conceptual challenges engendered by contemporary evolutionary biology, including the nature of fitness, natural selection, adaptations, and species; identifying organisms, traits, and the units of selection; the evidence required to support particular adaptive or historical hypotheses; and others.

Recommended: Previous university-level coursework in either philosophy or the biological sciences

PHL 599, TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY, 1-4 Credits

Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year.

Equivalent to: PHL 590

This course is repeatable for 16 credits.

Recommended: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy