# Physics

Physics is the study of the fundamental structure of matter and the interactions of its constituents. Physicists are concerned with the development of concepts needed for a precise description of nature and with experiments to test such concepts.

For students of science and engineering, the study of physics provides the basic foundation needed to understand the complex workings of the material world, from the forces that build atoms to those that build bridges. For students of the liberal arts, the study of physics provides an introduction to modern ideas about the most fundamental and elemental aspects of nature and how those ideas developed in their cultural and historical context. Physics is a basic and indispensable tool in all technical fields, and its development figures prominently in any discussion of the intellectual history of our civilization.

## Undergraduate Degree Programs

The department offers several programs leading to degrees in physics. A basic physics curriculum in the College of Science stresses the detailed and advanced preparation needed for graduate work or employment in physics.

Options are available within the physics degree program that prepare students for graduate work or employment in an allied field, such as applied physics, biophysics, chemical physics, geophysics, mathematical physics, optical physics, and physics teaching.

Other programs are offered that train students for careers in physics teaching. A Physics minor is available for students majoring in other areas of science and engineering.

The Department of Physics offers the upper-division curriculum, Paradigms in Physics. Many of the junior-year courses are taught in 2-credit intensive modules, meeting seven hours a week for about three weeks.

## Graduate Degrees

Graduate programs leading to the MA, MS, and PhD are offered, emphasizing theoretical or experimental studies in the areas of atomic physics, computational physics, nuclear physics, optical physics, particle physics, and solid state physics. The MS degree has both thesis and nonthesis options. Comprehensive written and oral examinations must be passed before the student can become a candidate for an advanced degree.

## Careers

A multitude of opportunities exists for students who complete undergraduate degrees in physics. They include employment in technological industries, including electronics, computers, optics, materials science, and aerospace; graduate study leading to an advanced degree in physics or a related area such as mathematics, Earth sciences, computer science, engineering, or astronomy; and degree programs leading to professions such as law or medicine, with specialties in areas in which a physics background is essential.

## Preparation

Recommended high school preparation for students who plan to major in physics includes one year each of chemistry and physics and four years of mathematics through analytic geometry. Mathematics preparation is especially important; students who are not ready to start calculus (MTH 251) upon entering may be delayed in their progress toward a degree. Students anticipating transfer to OSU from another institution are encouraged to contact the Department of Physics as early as possible to discuss their placement in the course curricula.

## Advising

Each undergraduate student is assigned an advisor who helps select the most appropriate degree program and assists in planning the curriculum. Minor variations in the requirements for degrees are possible, but must be discussed with the advisor and approved at an early stage in curriculum planning. Near the end of the degree program, the advisor can help the student to apply for employment or admission to graduate programs.

## Options

Students desiring to combine the study of physics with that of another related subject should consider the options below, or should consult with a Department of Physics advisor about substituting upper-division work in a related field for certain of the upper-division physics requirements. All such substitutions must constitute a coherent program in related areas and must be approved in advance by the Department of Physics. In each case, the program must include at least 3 credits of PH 403 to satisfy the university's writing intensive course (WIC) requirements.

## Astronomy

The Department of Physics offers an introductory course, PH 104. Three online courses (PH 205, PH 206, PH 207) and several on-campus special topics courses also are offered. Students who desire careers in astronomy can design a curriculum under the Geophysics option, which includes related course work in geology and in atmospheric sciences. This curriculum would qualify the student for graduate work in astronomy.

**Davide Lazzati**, *Head*

303 Weniger Hall

Oregon State University

Corvallis, OR 97331-6507

Phone: 541-737-1668

Email: davide.lazzati@oregonstate.edu

Website: https://physics.oregonstate.edu/

## Faculty & Staff

**PH 104, +*DESCRIPTIVE ASTRONOMY, 4 Credits**

Introduces basic astronomy and discusses the nature of science and physics concepts required to understand how we know what we know about the Universe. Examines planets of the Solar System, asteroids, comets, the Sun and other stars – their lifecycles, galaxies, pulsars, black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and fundamentals of cosmology. Presents a brief history of astronomy, including historical figures and the cultural context of significant astronomical discoveries. Provides demonstrations, experiments, and hands-on activities through an accompanying laboratory.

**Attributes:** CFSI – Core Ed - Scientific Inquiry & Analysis; CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Equivalent to: **PH 104H

**PH 104H, +*DESCRIPTIVE ASTRONOMY, 4 Credits**

Introduces basic astronomy and discusses the nature of science and physics concepts required to understand how we know what we know about the Universe. Examines planets of the Solar System, asteroids, comets, the Sun and other stars – their lifecycles, galaxies, pulsars, black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and fundamentals of cosmology. Presents a brief history of astronomy, including historical figures and the cultural context of significant astronomical discoveries. Provides demonstrations, experiments, and hands-on activities through an accompanying laboratory.

**Attributes:** CFSI – Core Ed - Scientific Inquiry & Analysis; CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Equivalent to: **PH 104

**PH 107, *DESCRIPTIVE ASTRONOMY: STARS AND THE UNIVERSE, 4 Credits**

Examines the structure and lifecycle of the Sun and other stars, and how stars evolve to form white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Explores galaxies and cosmology, as well as the roles of dark matter and dark energy. Reviews and integrates the basic physics concepts and mathematics required to understand how we have learned what we know about the Universe.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 111, *INQUIRING INTO PHYSICAL PHENOMENA, 4 Credits**

Investigates the physical processes related to global climate through observation and experiments, including reflection/refraction of light, thermal properties of materials, heat transfer, and planetary orbit. Focuses on building scientific explanations, with a special emphasis on communicating and exploring these phenomena with elementary and middle school students.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Prerequisite: ** ((MTH 111 with C- or better or MTH 111Z with C- or better) and (MTH 112 [C-] or MTH 112Z [C-])) or (MTH 211 [C-] and MTH 212 [C-])

**PH 198, FIRST-YEAR ORIENTATION, 1 Credit**

Introduction to the Physics Department including educational, research, and career opportunities. Recommended for all freshman and transfer physics majors, but open to all students interested in learning about opportunities in Physics.

**PH 199, SPECIAL STUDIES, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 99 credits.*

**PH 201, *GENERAL PHYSICS, 5 Credits**

Introductory survey course covering a broad spectrum of classical and modern physics with applications. Topics include dynamics, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Mathematical preparation should include college algebra and trigonometry.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Equivalent to: **PH 201H

**Recommended:** MTH 111Z and MTH 112Z

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 202, *GENERAL PHYSICS, 5 Credits**

Introductory survey course covering broad spectrum of classical and modern physics with applications. Topics include dynamics, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Mathematical preparation should include college algebra and trigonometry.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Equivalent to: **PH 202H

**Recommended:** MTH 111Z and MTH 112Z and PH 201

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 203, *GENERAL PHYSICS, 5 Credits**

Introductory survey course covering broad spectrum of classical and modern physics with applications. Topics include dynamics, vibrations and waves, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Mathematical preparation should include college algebra and trigonometry.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Equivalent to: **PH 203H

**Recommended:** MTH 111Z and MTH 112Z and PH 202

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 205, *SOLAR SYSTEM ASTRONOMY, 4 Credits**

History, laws, and tools of astronomy. Composition, motion, and origin of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. An accompanying laboratory is used for demonstrations, experiments, and projects, as well as for outdoor observations. The courses in the astronomy sequence (PH 205, PH 206, PH 207) can be taken in any order. Lec/lab. (Bacc Core Course)

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 206, *STARS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION, 4 Credits**

Properties of stars; star formation, evolution, and death; supernovae, pulsars, and black holes. An accompanying laboratory is used for demonstrations, experiments, and projects, as well as for outdoor observations. The courses in the astronomy sequence (PH 205, PH 206, PH 207) can be taken in any order. Lec/lab. (Bacc Core Course)

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 207, *GALAXIES, COSMOLOGY, LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE, 4 Credits**

Nature and content of galaxies, properties of quasars, and the cosmic background radiation. Emphasis on the Big-Bang model and its features. An accompanying laboratory is used for demonstrations, experiments, and projects, as well as for outdoor observations. The courses in the astronomy sequence (PH 205, PH 206, PH 207) can be taken in any order. (Bacc Core Course)

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 211, *GENERAL PHYSICS WITH CALCULUS, 4 Credits**

A comprehensive introductory survey course intended primarily for students in the sciences and engineering. Topics include mechanics, wave motion, thermal physics, electromagnetism, and optics. Elementary calculus is used.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Equivalent to: **PH 211H

**Recommended:** MTH 251 and concurrent enrollment in MTH 252 and a PH 221 recitation section

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 211H, *GENERAL PHYSICS WITH CALCULUS, 4 Credits**

A comprehensive introductory survey course intended primarily for students in the sciences and engineering. Topics include mechanics, wave motion, thermal physics, electromagnetism, and optics. Elementary calculus is used.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Equivalent to: **PH 211

**Recommended:** MTH 251 and concurrent enrollment in MTH 252 and a PH 221 recitation section

**PH 212, *GENERAL PHYSICS WITH CALCULUS, 4 Credits**

A comprehensive introductory survey course intended primarily for students in the sciences and engineering. Topics include mechanics, wave motion, thermal physics, electromagnetism, and optics. Elementary calculus is used.

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Prerequisite: ** PH 211 with D- or better or PH 211H with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 212H

**Recommended:** MTH 252 and concurrent enrollment in PH 222 and MTH 254

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 212H, *GENERAL PHYSICS WITH CALCULUS, 4 Credits**

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Prerequisite: ** PH 211 with D- or better or PH 211H with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 212

**Recommended:** MTH 252 and concurrent enrollment in PH 222 and MTH 254

**PH 213, *GENERAL PHYSICS WITH CALCULUS, 4 Credits**

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science

**Equivalent to: **PH 213H

**Recommended:** (MTH 254 or MTH 254H) and (PH 212 or PH 212H). Concurrent enrollment in a recitation section is strongly recommended

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 213H, *GENERAL PHYSICS WITH CALCULUS, 4 Credits**

**Attributes:** CPPS – Bacc Core, Perspectives, Physical Science; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Equivalent to: **PH 213

**Recommended:** (MTH 254 or MTH 254H) and (PH 212 or PH 212H). Concurrent enrollment in a recitation section is strongly recommended

**PH 221, RECITATION FOR PHYSICS 211, 1 Credit**

One-hour weekly session for the development of problem-solving skills in calculus-based general physics.

**Prerequisite: ** PH 211 (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better or PH 211H (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 221H

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 221H, RECITATION FOR PHYSICS 211, 1 Credit**

One-hour weekly session for the development of problem-solving skills in calculus-based general physics.

**Attributes:** HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Prerequisite: ** PH 211 (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better or PH 211H (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 221

**PH 222, RECITATION FOR PHYSICS 212, 1 Credit**

One-hour weekly session for the development of problem-solving skills in calculus-based general physics.

**Prerequisite: ** PH 212 (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better or PH 212H (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 222H

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 222H, RECITATION FOR PHYSICS 212, 1 Credit**

**Attributes:** HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Prerequisite: ** PH 212 (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better or PH 212H (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 222

**PH 223, RECITATION FOR PHYSICS 213, 1 Credit**

**Prerequisite: ** PH 213 (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better or PH 213H (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 223H

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 223H, RECITATION FOR PHYSICS 213, 1 Credit**

**Attributes:** HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Prerequisite: ** PH 213 (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better or PH 213H (may be taken concurrently) with D- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 223

**PH 299, SPECIAL TOPICS, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 313, *ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 3 Credits**

Exploration of the challenges and opportunities posed by dwindling resources; physical and technological basis of our current energy alternatives; new or controversial technologies such as nuclear or solar power; overview of resource availability, patterns of energy consumption, and current governmental policies. (Bacc Core Course)

**Attributes:** CSST – Bacc Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society

**Equivalent to: **PH 313H

**Recommended:** Upper-division standing and 12 credits of introductory science.

*Available via Ecampus*

**PH 313H, *ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 3 Credits**

Exploration of the challenges and opportunities posed by dwindling resources; physical and technological basis of our current energy alternatives; new or controversial technologies such as nuclear or solar power; overview of resource availability, patterns of energy consumption, and current governmental policies. (Bacc Core Course)

**Attributes:** CSST – Bacc Core, Synthesis, Science/Technology/Society; HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Equivalent to: **PH 313

**Recommended:** Upper-division standing and 12 credits of introductory science

**PH 315, PHYSICS OF CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES, 3 Credits**

An introduction to thermal and quantum physics in the context of contemporary challenges faced by our society, such as power generation, energy efficiency, and global warming.

**Recommended:** PH 211

**PH 317, ^EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Conducting experiments, understanding equipment, modeling physical phenomena, analyzing and presenting data, sources of variation and uncertainty.

**Attributes:** CSWC – Core Ed - Writing Intensive Curriculum (WIC); CWIC – Bacc Core, Skills, Writing Intensive Curriculum (WIC)

**Prerequisite: ** (PH 213 with C- or better or PH 213H with C- or better) and PH 315 [C-] and PH 335 [C-]

**Equivalent to: **PH 317X

**PH 335, TECHNIQUES OF THEORETICAL MECHANICS, 3 Credits**

Newtonian, Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian classical mechanics. Special relativity with relativistic mechanics.

**PH 365, COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS LAB, 1 Credit**

A project-driven laboratory experience in computational physics. Includes the use of basic mathematical and numerical techniques in computer calculations leading to solutions for typical physical problems. Topics to be covered will coordinate with the Paradigms in Physics course sequence.

**Prerequisite: ** PH 213 with C- or better or PH 213H with C- or better

**Equivalent to: **PH 365X

**Recommended:** Concurrent enrollment in Paradigms

**PH 366, COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS LAB, 1 Credit**

A project-driven laboratory experience in computational physics. Includes the use of basic mathematical and numerical techniques in computer calculations leading to solutions for typical physical problems. Topics to be covered will coordinate with the Paradigms in Physics course sequence.

**Prerequisite: ** PH 213 with C- or better or PH 213H with C- or better

**Recommended:** Concurrent enrollment in Paradigms

**PH 367, COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS LAB, 1 Credit**

A project-driven laboratory experience in computational physics. Includes the use of basic mathematical and numerical techniques in computer calculations leading to solutions for typical physical problems. Topics to be covered will coordinate with the Paradigms in Physics course sequence.

**Prerequisite: ** PH 213 with C- or better or PH 213H with C- or better

**Recommended:** Concurrent enrollment in Paradigms

**PH 399, SPECIAL TOPICS, 1-16 Credits**

**Equivalent to: **PH 399H

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 399H, SPECIAL TOPICS, 1-16 Credits**

**Attributes:** HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Equivalent to: **PH 399

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 401, RESEARCH, 1-16 Credits**

A research project under the supervision of a faculty member, whose approval must be arranged by the student in advance of registration.

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 403, ^THESIS, 1-16 Credits**

A research project leading to a thesis under the supervision of a faculty member, whose approval must be arranged by the student in advance of registration.

**Attributes:** CSWC – Core Ed - Writing Intensive Curriculum (WIC); CWIC – Bacc Core, Skills, Writing Intensive Curriculum (WIC)

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 405, READING AND CONFERENCE, 1-16 Credits**

An independent study project under the supervision of a faculty member, whose approval must be arranged by the student in advance of registration.

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 407, SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits**

Departmental seminars or colloquium. Graded P/N.

**Equivalent to: **PH 407H

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 407H, SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits**

Departmental seminars or colloquium.

**Attributes:** HNRS – Honors Course Designator

**Equivalent to: **PH 407

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 409, PHYSICS TEACHING PRACTICUM, 1-6 Credits**

Physics practicum experience for students assisting in Physics courses. Includes training in course content and development of instructional materials. Admission is by application. See the department office in Weniger 301 for details.

*This course is repeatable for 6 credits.*

**PH 410, INTERNSHIP, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 411, ELECTRONICS, 3 Credits**

Covers how to build and analyze basic circuits. Topics include passive dc and ac circuits including filters, complex impedance, Fourier analysis, operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, and transistors.

**Recommended:** PH 213

**PH 415, COMPUTER INTERFACING AND INSTRUMENTATION, 3 Credits**

Applications of computers as scientific instruments, with emphasis on hardware and instrumentation, online data acquisition, and computer control of experiments.

**PH 422, PARADIGMS IN PHYSICS: STATIC FIELDS, 3 Credits**

Theory of static electric, magnetic, and gravitational potentials and fields using the techniques of vector calculus in three dimensions.

**Equivalent to: **PH 322

**PH 423, PARADIGMS IN PHYSICS: ENERGY AND ENTROPY, 3 Credits**

Thermodynamics and canonical statistical mechanics.

**Recommended:** PH 213

**PH 424, PARADIGMS IN PHYSICS: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES, 3 Credits**

Dynamics of mechanical and electrical oscillation using Fourier series and integrals; time and frequency representations for driven damped oscillators, resonance; one-dimensional waves in classical mechanics and electromagnetism; normal modes.

**PH 425, PARADIGMS IN PHYSICS: QUANTUM FUNDAMENTALS, 3 Credits**

Introduction to quantum mechanics through Stern-Gerlach spin measurements. Probability, eigenvalues, operators, measurement, state reduction, Dirac notation, matrix mechanics, time evolution. Quantum behavior of a one-dimensional well.

**PH 426, PARADIGMS IN PHYSICS: CENTRAL FORCES, 3 Credits**

Gravitational and electrostatic forces; angular momentum and spherical harmonics, separation of variables in classical and quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom.

**Recommended:** PH 213 and PH 422 and PH 425 and concurrent enrollment in PH 335

**PH 427, PARADIGMS IN PHYSICS: PERIODIC SYSTEMS, 3 Credits**

Quantum waves in position and momentum space; Bloch waves in one-dimensional periodic systems, and the reciprocal lattice; coupled harmonic oscillators; phonons.

**Recommended:** PH 424 and PH 425 and concurrent enrollment in PH 315

**PH 431, CAPSTONES IN PHYSICS: ELECTROMAGNETISM, 3 Credits**

Static electric and magnetic fields in matter, electrodynamics, Maxwell equations, electromagnetic waves, wave guides, dipole radiation.

**PH 441, CAPSTONES IN PHYSICS: THERMAL AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Entropy and quantum mechanics; canonical Gibbs probability; ideal gas; thermal radiation; Einstein and Debye lattices; grand canonical Gibbs probability; ideal Fermi and Bose gases; chemical reactions and phase transformations.

**PH 451, CAPSTONES IN PHYSICS: QUANTUM MECHANICS, 3 Credits**

Wave mechanics, Schroedinger equation, operators, harmonic oscillator, identical particles, atomic fine structure, approximation methods and applications.

**Recommended:** (PH 424 or PH 524) and (PH 425 or PH 525) and (PH 426 or PH 526)

**PH 455, ASTROPHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Physics of stars and the cosmos.

**Recommended:** PH 213; PH 315 or equivalent junior-level background in modern physics and thermodynamics.

**PH 464, SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING II, 3 Credits**

Mathematical, numerical, and conceptual elements forming foundations of scientific computing: computer hardware, algorithms, precision, efficiency, verification, numerical analysis, algorithm scaling, profiling, and tuning.

**PH 481, PHYSICAL OPTICS, 4 Credits**

Wave propagation, polarization, interference, diffraction, and selected topics in modern optics.

**Recommended:** PH 431

**PH 482, OPTICAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, 4 Credits**

Photodetectors, laser theory, and laser systems. CROSSLISTED as ECE 482/PH 482 and ECE 582/PH 582.

**Equivalent to: **ECE 482

**PH 483, GUIDED WAVE OPTICS, 4 Credits**

Optical fibers, fiber mode structure and polarization effects, fiber interferometry, fiber sensors, optical communication systems. CROSSLISTED as ECE 483/PH 483 and ECE 583/PH 583.

**Prerequisite: ** ECE 391 (may be taken concurrently) with C or better or PH 481 (may be taken concurrently) with C or better

**Equivalent to: **ECE 483

**PH 495, INTRODUCTION TO PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Elementary particles and forces, nuclear structure and reactions.

**Recommended:** PH 451

**PH 499, SPECIAL TOPICS, 1-16 Credits**

Topics vary from year to year. May be repeated for credit. Not offered every year.

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 501, RESEARCH, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 503, THESIS, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 999 credits.*

**PH 505, READING AND CONFERENCE, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 507, SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits**

Section 1: Departmental Colloquium. Section 3: Nuclear and Particle Physics. Section 5: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. Section 7: Solid State Physics. Section 9: Computational Physics.

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 510, INTERNSHIP, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 511, ELECTRONICS, 3 Credits**

Covers how to build and analyze basic circuits. Topics include passive dc and ac circuits including filters, complex impedance, Fourier analysis, operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, and transistors.

**Recommended:** PH 213

**PH 515, COMPUTER INTERFACING AND INSTRUMENTATION, 3 Credits**

Applications of computers as scientific instruments, with emphasis on hardware and instrumentation, online data acquisition, and computer control of experiments.

**PH 531, CAPSTONES IN PHYSICS: ELECTROMAGNETISM, 3 Credits**

Static electric and magnetic fields in matter, electrodynamics, Maxwell equations, electromagnetic waves, wave guides, dipole radiation.

**PH 541, CAPSTONES IN PHYSICS: THERMAL AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Entropy and quantum mechanics; canonical Gibbs probability; ideal gas; thermal radiation; Einstein and Debye lattices; grand canonical Gibbs probability; ideal Fermi and Bose gases; chemical reactions and phase transformations.

**PH 551, CAPSTONES IN PHYSICS: QUANTUM MECHANICS, 3 Credits**

Wave mechanics, Schroedinger equation, operators, harmonic oscillator, identical particles, atomic fine structure, approximation methods and applications.

**Recommended:** (PH 424 or PH 524) and (PH 425 or PH 525) and (PH 426 or PH 526)

**PH 555, ASTROPHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Physics of stars and the cosmos.

**Recommended:** PH 213; PH 315 or equivalent junior-level background in modern physics and thermodynamics.

**PH 562, MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Fundamental mathematical techniques needed for graduate students in physics. Topics include vector spaces and operators; fourier series, integrals, and transforms; partial differential equations; special functions, distributions, and delta functions; Green's functions; complex analysis.

**PH 564, SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING II, 3 Credits**

Mathematical, numerical, and conceptual elements forming foundations of scientific computing: computer hardware, algorithms, precision, efficiency, verification, numerical analysis, algorithm scaling, profiling, and tuning.

**PH 575, INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Introduction to condensed matter physics for majors in physics, chemistry, and engineering. Topics include band structure, free electron behavior, optical properties, magnetism, and lattice excitations.

**Recommended:** (PH 451 or PH 551) and concurrent enrollment in PH 427 or PH 527

**PH 581, PHYSICAL OPTICS, 4 Credits**

Wave propagation, polarization, interference, diffraction, and selected topics in modern optics.

**PH 582, OPTICAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, 4 Credits**

Photodetectors, laser theory, and laser systems. CROSSLISTED as ECE 482/PH 482 and ECE 582/PH 582.

**Equivalent to: **ECE 582

**PH 583, GUIDED WAVE OPTICS, 4 Credits**

Optical fibers, fiber mode structure and polarization effects, fiber interferometry, fiber sensors, optical communication systems. CROSSLISTED as ECE 483/PH 483 and ECE 583/PH 583.

**Equivalent to: **ECE 583

**Recommended:** Completion or concurrent enrollment in (ECE 391 or PH 481 or PH 581)

**PH 585, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND OPTICAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Introduction to atomic structure, interaction with electromagnetic fields, atomic physics and modern quantum optics. Applications are made to spectroscopic techniques and to explain the principles of quantum computing and logic.

**Recommended:** PH 652 or PH 451 or equivalent full-year undergraduate sequence of quantum mechanics

**PH 591, BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Basic physics principles applied to the kinetics and dynamics of molecular and cellular processes. Ion channels, two-state systems, dynamics of molecular motors, cell signalling, and multicellular phenomena.

**Recommended:** PH 320, PH 421, PH 422 and PH 423 or junior-level background in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and thermodynamics

**PH 595, INTRODUCTION TO PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Elementary particles and forces, nuclear structure and reactions.

**PH 599, SPECIAL TOPICS, 1-16 Credits**

(See PH 499 for description.)

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 601, RESEARCH, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 603, THESIS, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 999 credits.*

**PH 605, READING AND CONFERENCE, 1-16 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 607, SEMINAR, 1-16 Credits**

Section 1: Departmental Colloquium. Section 3: Nuclear and Particle Physics. Section 5: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. Section 7: Solid State Physics. Section 9: Computational Physics.

*This course is repeatable for 16 credits.*

**PH 609, PRACTICUM IN TEACHING, 1-6 Credits**

*This course is repeatable for 6 credits.*

**PH 621, DYNAMICS OF SINGLE- AND MULTI-PARTICLE SYSTEMS, 3 Credits**

Introduction to theory of non-linear systems. Chaos in Hamiltonian and dissipative systems. Lyapunov exponents, fractal geometries.

**Recommended:** PH 435 or PH 535

**PH 625, MATERIALS AND SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION, 3 Credits**

Covers scientific principles of surface and structural characterization techniques. Explores methods to study both macro- and nano-scale properties. Emphasizes surface and interfacial analysis of metals, semiconductors, and dielectric materials. Applies basic knowledge of chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand scientific fundamentals and operating principles of spectroscopy and microscopy-based techniques. Covers a range of experimental methods for determining surface structure, elemental composition, and chemical states. Topics including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy ion scattering, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. CROSSLISTED as CH 625/CHE 625/MATS 625/PH 625.

**PH 631, ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY, 3 Credits**

Electrostatics; multipole expansion; magnetostatics; radiation fields; dynamics of relativistic particles and electromagnetic fields.

**PH 632, ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY, 3 Credits**

Electrostatics; multipole expansion; magnetostatics; radiation fields; dynamics of relativistic particles and electromagnetic fields.

**PH 641, STATISTICAL THERMOPHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Macroscopic thermodynamics and kinetic theory. Classical and quantal statistical ensembles; partition functions. Applications to atoms and molecules, clustering, solids, radiation.

**Recommended:** PH 435 or PH 535

**PH 642, STATISTICAL THERMOPHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Macroscopic thermodynamics and kinetic theory. Classical and quantal statistical ensembles; partition functions. Applications to atoms and molecules, clustering, solids, radiation.

**Recommended:** PH 641

**PH 651, QUANTUM MECHANICS, 3 Credits**

Basic principles of nonrelativistic quantum theory and applications. Schroedinger theory, quantum theory of angular momentum, matrix mechanics, perturbation theory, identical particles, scattering.

**PH 652, QUANTUM MECHANICS, 3 Credits**

Basic principles of nonrelativistic quantum theory and applications. Schroedinger theory, quantum theory of angular momentum, matrix mechanics, perturbation theory, identical particles, scattering.

**Recommended:** (PH 435 or PH 535) and (PH 451 or PH 551) and PH 651

**PH 653, QUANTUM MECHANICS, 3 Credits**

Basic principles of nonrelativistic quantum theory and applications. Schroedinger theory, quantum theory of angular momentum, matrix mechanics, perturbation theory, identical particles, scattering.

**Recommended:** (PH 435 or PH 535) and (PH 451 or PH 551) and PH 652

**PH 654, ADVANCED QUANTUM THEORY, 3 Credits**

Scattering theory, second quantization and many body theory, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantization of fields, quantum electrodynamics, and elementary particles.

**Recommended:** PH 653

**PH 655X, ADVANCED QUANTUM THEORY, 3 Credits**

Covers scattering theory, second quantization and many body theory, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantization of fields, quantum electrodynamics, and elementary particles.

**Prerequisite: ** PH 654 with C- or better

**PH 673, SOLID STATE PHYSICS, NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, 3 Credits**

Introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology; semiconductor quantum wells, wires, and dots; bulk metals vs nanoparticles; molecular ensembles vs single molecules; fabrication of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials; scanning probe microscopy; advanced optical imaging and manipulation. Not offered every year.

**Recommended:** Basic knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics

**PH 681, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS, MODERN OPTICS, 3 Credits**

Maxwell's equations in matter; refraction, phase and group indices; material and geometry dispersion; effective-medium regime. Not offered every year.

**Recommended:** Basic knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics

**PH 683, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS, NONLINEAR OPTICS, 3 Credits**

Coherent nonlinear electromagnetic phenomena; harmonic generation and parametric mixing; quantum mechanical description of multi-photon interactions; incoherent multi-photon interactions; coherent nonlinear optical phenomena and spectroscopies. Not offered every year.

**Recommended:** Basic knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics

**PH 699, SPECIAL TOPICS: BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS, 3 Credits**

Topics vary from year to year. Not offered every year.

*This course is repeatable for 9 credits.*