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PHL Courses, Corvallis Campus

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Top PHL 101 CRITICAL THINKING (4) 
Analysis of arguments, basic patterns of inductive and deductive reasoning, logical relations, and logical fallacies. Intended to improve analytical, critical and reasoning skills.

Top PHL 110 CRITICAL ANALYSIS (3) 
Development of a question-asking attitude for academic study. Enables students to explore issues and make informed decisions. PREREQS: EOP students only.

Top PHL 121 REASONING AND WRITING (3)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Develops critical thinking skills to increase clarity and effectiveness of student writing; uses writing experiences to teach critical thinking skills. Subjects include identifying and evaluating arguments, analyzing assumptions, justifying claims with reasons, avoiding confused or dishonest reasoning, applying common patterns of reasoning in everyday contexts, and writing cogent complex arguments. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 150 GREAT IDEAS IN PHILOSOPHY (3)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Explores the assumptions and deeper meanings of familiar concepts and experiences. An introduction to some basic and famous ideas in Western thought. Topics may include truth, beauty, infinity, perception, freedom, pleasure, knowledge, mind and body, morality, justice, and political authority. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 160 QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 160H QUESTS FOR MEANING: WORLD RELIGIONS (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A survey and analysis of the search for meaning and life fulfillment represented in major religious traditions of the world, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Zen, Confucianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Lec/rec. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 170 THE IDEA OF GOD (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Concepts and images of God and their connections to world-views, experience, science, gender, society, self-understanding, and religions. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 199 SPECIAL STUDIES (1-16) 
May be repeated for credit when topic varies. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits.

Top PHL 201 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
An in-depth introduction to the methods and ideas of Western philosophy, concentrating on such great figures as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant and Nietzsche and such topics as the nature of reality, the existence of God, knowledge and doubt, the relation of consciousness to the world, free will and determinism, good and evil, and minds and machines. Philosophers and ideas covered will vary by the section. Written assignments are required. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 202 INTRODUCTION TO RELIGIOUS STUDIES (4) 
An introduction to the academic study of religion. It examines the concepts of religion and the sacred, approaches to the study of religion, ubiquitous features of religious experience, including symbol, myth, ritual, and community, understandings of the human condition in diverse religious traditions, and ways religious communities address challenges of pluralism and secularization.

Top PHL 205 ETHICS (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Introduction to ethical theory and to the evaluation of ethical issues in society such as sexual ethics and euthanasia. Includes the study of philosophical theories of moral responsibility and moral virtue, and the philosophical ideas behind ethics debates in society. Students are encouraged to develop their own positions on ethical issues through discussion projects and term papers. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 205H ETHICS (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Introduction to ethical theory and to the evaluation of ethical issues in society such as sexual ethics and euthanasia. Includes the study of philosophical theories of moral responsibility and moral virtue, and the philosophical ideas behind ethics debates in society. Students are encouraged to develop their own positions on ethical issues through discussion projects and term papers. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 206 RELIGIOUS ETHICS AND MORAL PROBLEMS (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
An examination of the practical ethics of the monotheistic religious traditions of the West--Judaism, Christianity, Islam--and their different approaches to concrete moral problems. Topics include sexuality and marriage, euthanasia, capital punishment, pacifism and just war, and environmentalism. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 207 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Introductory study of the philosophical justifications of political systems and philosophical theories about the rights and obligations of citizens and governments. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 207H POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Introductory study of the philosophical justifications of political systems and philosophical series about the rights and obligations of citizens and government. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 208 INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHIST TRADITIONS (4)  Offered in current or future terms
Survey of the historical development of Buddhism in India and its spread throughout Asia and beyond by investigating the literature, rituals, history and social structure of the Buddhist traditions of Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, Tibet and the Himalayan region, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and finally its growth in the West.

Top PHL 210 RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. CROSSLISTED as HST 210. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 210H RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A thematic overview of the historical study of religion in the United States, with an eye toward ways that social and cultural contexts have shaped the religious experience of Americans in different places and times. Surveys a wide array of religious movements, groups, and individuals from the colonial period to present. CROSSLISTED as HST 210H. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 213 INTRODUCTION TO HINDU TRADITIONS (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Survey of the historical development of Hinduism in India and the "Hindu Diaspora." Topics will include the Indus Valley civilization, the Vedic tradition, yoga, and Hindu renunciation, "Classical" Hindu theism and devotion, Hindu philosophy and ritual, and modern and contemporary Hinduism. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 214 INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC TRADITIONS (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Development of Islamic traditions in the Arab world and in the global context. Origins of Islam, the narrative of the Prophet Muhammad, the development of the Qur'an, and the central tenets of Islamic faith and practice. Transformation of Islam from a regional to a global tradition. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 220 WORLD-VIEWS AND VALUES IN THE BIBLE (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of central portions of the Bible (in the Old Testament: Torah, prophets, psalms, and wisdom; in the New Testament: Jesus, gospels, and letters) from the perspective of the academic discipline of biblical scholarship, exploring the philosophical questions of the relationships between story, myth, thought, values, and understandings of life. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 220H WORLD-VIEWS AND VALUES IN THE BIBLE (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of central portions of the Bible (in the Old Testament: Torah, prophets, psalms, and wisdom; in the New Testament: Jesus, gospels, and letters) from the perspective of the academic discipline of biblical scholarship, exploring the philosophical questions of the relationships between story, myth, thought, values, and understandings of life. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 251 KNOWERS, KNOWING, AND THE KNOWN (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
An introduction to the major debates in Western philosophy concerning the nature of reality, and the ways we come to know about that reality. One example concerns debates about the problem of skepticism: Is it possible that humans could be completely mistaken about the way the world is? Another example concerns debates about human identity and free will. Beginning with historical figures such as Descartes and Hume, the course also provides an introduction to more contemporary thinkers. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 251H KNOWERS, KNOWING, AND THE KNOWN (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
An introduction to the major debates in Western philosophy concerning the nature of reality, and the ways we come to know about that reality. One example concerns debates about the problem of skepticism: Is it possible that humans could be completely mistaken about the way the world is? Another example concerns debates about human identity and free will. Beginning with historical figures such as Descartes and Hume, the course also provides an introduction to more contemporary thinkers. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 280 ETHICS OF DIVERSITY (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Uses moral philosophy to examine difference-based discrimination and prejudice in the human community. (H) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 299 SELECTED TOPICS (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 99 credits.

Top PHL 301 HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy recommended.

Top PHL 302 HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy recommended.

Top PHL 303 HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of the history of Western philosophy from the early Greeks into the twentieth century. Designed to give an appreciation and understanding of the Western philosophical tradition and the philosophical foundations of Western civilization. May be taken independently. PHL 301: Greek and Roman philosophy. PHL 302: The rise of modern philosophy through Hume. PHL 303: Kant and the nineteenth century. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy recommended.

Top PHL 312 ASIAN THOUGHT (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Familiarizes students with key figures in the history of Asian religious ideas and philosophy. While the emphasis will be on the philosophical traditions of Asia, it will quickly become apparent that philosophy and religion are not so easily distinguishable in many Asian traditions. Areas of thought studied will include Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist. (NC) (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 315 GANDHI AND NONVIOLENCE (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
An examination of the life and work of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the 20th century activist and author, and the theory and practice of nonviolence in his life and work. Emphasis will be placed upon Gandhi's biographical narrative, the development of satyagraha, Gandhi's nonviolent approach to social transformation, and post-Gandhian nonviolent movements. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 315H GANDHI AND NONVIOLENCE (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
An examination of the life and work of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the 20th century activist and author, and the theory and practice of nonviolence in his life and work. Emphasis will be placed upon Gandhi's biographical narrative, the development of satyagraha, Gandhi's nonviolent approach to social transformation, and post-Gandhian nonviolent movements. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 316 INTELLECTUAL ISSUES OF MEXICO AND MEXICAN AMERICANS (4)  Offered in current or future terms
The philosophical, social, cultural, and political reality of Mexican Americans and their historical roots in Mexico since the Spanish Conquest. Analysis of internal colonialism, racism, machismo, fatalism, alienation, cultural identity, as well as more contemporary including NAFTA, immigration, and U.S.-Mexican relations. (NC)

Top PHL 321 DEDUCTIVE LOGIC (4)  Offered in current or future terms
Development of formal language and deductive systems for first-order, quantificational logic. Emphasis on translation of ordinary English statements into formal language. Discussion of the contrast between semantic and syntactic treatment of logical concepts. PREREQS: Upper-division standing or PHL 101.

Top PHL 325 SCIENTIFIC REASONING (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Introduction to and analysis of scientific reasoning. Emphasis on understanding and evaluation of theoretical hypotheses, causal and statistical models, and uses of scientific knowledge to make personal and public decisions. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 325H SCIENTIFIC REASONING (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Introduction to and analysis of scientific reasoning. Emphasis on understanding and evaluation of theoretical hypotheses, causal and statistical models, and uses of scientific knowledge to make personal and public decisions. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 342 CONTEMPORARY ETHICS (4) 
A study of significant ethical developments and issues in contemporary society, including ethical principles and concepts behind social debates on such matters as sexual ethics, abortion, discrimination, the uses of animals in scientific research, and responsibilities of corporations. Not offered every year. (H) PREREQS: PHL 205 recommended.

Top PHL 344 PACIFISM, JUST WAR, AND TERRORISM (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
An examination of the philosophical and theological issues pertaining to pacifism, justified war, and forms of terrorism in Islamic and Western traditions. Special attention is given to concepts of jihad, justifications of war, and restraints on conduct in war. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 344H PACIFISM, JUST WAR, AND TERRORISM (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
An examination of the philosophical and theological issues pertaining to pacifism, justified war, and forms of terrorism in Islamic and Western traditions. Special attention is given to concepts of jihad, justifications of war, and restraints on conduct in war. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 360 PHILOSOPHY AND THE ARTS (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
Major philosophical theories about art and its meaning, from ancient to modern times. How philosophers have understood beauty, the imagination, art and knowledge, art and pleasure, art and emotion. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy, or upper-division standing recommended.

Top PHL 365 LAW IN PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of philosophical issues in the law through the examination of legal cases and major essays in jurisprudence. Special attention given to concepts of justice, responsibility, liberty, law, and legal ethics. Offered every other year. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

Top PHL 371 PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

Top PHL 371H PHILOSOPHIES OF CHINA (4)  Baccalaureate Core Course
A study of the traditional philosophies of China, including Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Not offered every year. (NC) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: 3 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing. Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 390 MORAL THEORIES (3) 
Examines the evolution of moral philosophy from the beginning of Western, Greek-based philosophy through contemporary moral theory, and will include philosophical questions about moral philosophy generally, virtue ethics, deontology, utilitarianism, environmental ethics, animal rights, and feminism and ecofeminism. PREREQS: PHL 205

Top PHL 399 SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY (1-4) 
Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific philosophical problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception, philosophy of mind. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: 3 credits of upper-division philosophy recommended.

Top PHL 399H SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY (1-4)  Offered in current or future terms
Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific philosophical problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception, philosophy of mind. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every term. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Honors College approval required. 3 credits of upper-division philosophy recommended.

Top PHL 402 INDEPENDENT STUDY (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 403 THESIS (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Departmental approval required.

Top PHL 405 READING AND CONFERENCE (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Departmental approval required and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 407 SEMINAR (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms WIC Core Course
(Writing Intensive Course) This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Two upper-division philosophy courses or the equivalent and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 407H SEMINAR (1-16)  WIC Core Course
(Writing Intensive Course) This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Two upper-division philosophy courses or the equivalent and sophomore standing. Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 410 INTERNSHIP (1-12)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 411 GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY (4) 
Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. (H) This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 417 FEMINIST PHILOSOPHIES (3) 
Diverse forms of feminist philosophy, including a variety of critiques, especially those based on race and class, with in-depth consideration of selected social issues such as rape and pornography. CROSSLISTED as WGSS 417/WGSS 517. (H) PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

Top PHL 421 MATHEMATICAL LOGIC (3) 
Rigorous definition of a formal logic and investigation of its characteristics. Emphasis on the distinction and relation between semantic and syntactic methods (model theory and proof theory) and on the meta-mathematical analysis of axiomatic theories. Not offered every year. PREREQS: PHL 321 or 6 credits of 400-level mathematics or computer science and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 430 HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY (4) 
Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia.

Top PHL 430H HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY (4) 
Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia. PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 431 BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE (4) 
Contemporary ideas, theories, and practices of the international movement of socially and politically active Buddhists known as Engaged Buddhism. Particular attention will be given to the philosophical presentations of non-violence and social justice, and their applications in living Buddhist traditions.

Top PHL 431H BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE (4) 
Contemporary ideas, theories, and practices of the international movement of socially and politically active Buddhists known as Engaged Buddhism. Particular attention will be given to the philosophical presentations of non-violence and social justice, and their applications in living Buddhist traditions. PREREQS: Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 432 YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual. (Bacc Core Course)

Top PHL 436 PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION (3)  Offered in current or future terms
Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 439 PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE (3) 
Intensive one-week field course taught in the Cascade Range. What is nature? What is the relation of humans to the rest of the natural world? How are our concepts of nature and decisions about land use shaped by the words and metaphors we use? What is the value of wild places? What can we learn from a close study of the natural world about right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic? The course will draw on many ways of knowing--philosophical analysis, close observation, and especially writing. Camping required. PREREQS: Admission by application, departmental approval required.

Top PHL 440 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS (3)  Offered in current or future terms
Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships to the land, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics; philosophical problems in environmental ethics, such as the rights of animals and plants; the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups; and selected contemporary issues on the environmental front. (H) PREREQS: PHL 205 and PHL 342 and PHL 365 or 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 440H ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS (3) 
Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships to the land, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics; philosophical problems in environmental ethics, such as the rights of animals and plants; the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups; and selected contemporary issues on the environmental front. PREREQS: PHL 205 and PHL 342 and PHL 365 or 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing and Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 443 WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES (3)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. (Bacc Core Course) (NC) PREREQS: One introductory-level science course and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 443H WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES (3)  Baccalaureate Core Course
A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: One introductory-level science course and sophomore standing and Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 444 BIOMEDICAL ETHICS (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. (H) (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 444H BIOMEDICAL ETHICS (4)  Offered in current or future terms Baccalaureate Core Course
Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decision in medicine. (Bacc Core Course) PREREQS: Sophomore standing and Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 448 NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES (3) 
Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. CROSSLISTED as ES 448/ES 548.

Top PHL 450 TOPICS (1-16) 
Uses the IDEAS MATTER lectures as the focus for an exploration of ideas that make a difference in the world. Students read background materials, attend lectures, meet with the speakers, and write essays on the ideas they learn. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 451 KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY (3) 
Examination of significant theories of knowledge, theories concerning the nature of reality, and their connections. Includes an analysis of important concepts and problems, such as perception, induction, belief, empiricism, rationalism, and skepticism. Not offered every year. (H) PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy, sophomore standing.

Top PHL 455 DEATH AND DYING (3)  Offered in current or future terms
A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy or sophomore standing.

Top PHL 461 ART AND MORALITY (3)  Offered in current or future terms
The arts in the context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 462X AESTHETICS OF THE NATURAL WORLD (3) 
Aesthetics appreciation of the natural world in Western thought and concepts and activities that shaped it. Relationship of aesthetic experiences of the natural world to art and philosophies of art, to moral reasoning, environmentalism and how we live, to concepts of knowledge and reality, to UNESCO heritage concepts.

Top PHL 470 PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (3) 
Examination of philosophical questions, classic and contemporary, about science and scientific knowledge. Scientific explanations, the structure of theories, the concept of a natural law, revolutions in science, influences of the sciences and philosophy on one another, science and values. Not offered every year. (H) PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy (upper-division philosophy recommended), sophomore standing.

Top PHL 474 PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY (4)  Offered in current or future terms WIC Core Course
An introduction to some of the conceptual challenges engendered by contemporary evolutionary biology, including the nature of fitness, natural selection, adaptations, and species; identifying organisms, traits, and the units of selection; the evidence required to support particular adaptive or historical hypotheses; and others. (Writing Intensive Course) PREREQS: Previous university-level course work in either philosophy or the biological sciences is strongly recommended.

Top PHL 499 TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY (1-4)  Offered in current or future terms
Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy, sophomore standing.

Top PHL 499H TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY (1-4) 
Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 4 credits. PREREQS: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy, sophomore standing; Honors College approval required.

Top PHL 501 RESEARCH (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Departmental approval required.

Top PHL 502 INDEPENDENT STUDY (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 503 THESIS (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 999 credits. PREREQS: Departmental approval required.

Top PHL 505 READING AND CONFERENCE (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Departmental approval required.

Top PHL 507 SEMINAR (1-16)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Two upper-division philosophy courses or the equivalent and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 510 INTERNSHIP (1-12)  Offered in current or future terms
This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 511 GREAT FIGURES IN PHILOSOPHY (4) 
Study of the works of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, or Marx. Each course normally devoted to the work of a single figure. Need not be taken in sequence. Not offered every year. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 517 FEMINIST PHILOSOPHIES (3) 
Diverse forms of feminist philosophy, including a variety of critiques, especially those based on race and class, with in-depth consideration of selected social issues such as rape and pornography. CROSSLISTED as WGSS 417/WGSS 517. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy or upper-division standing.

Top PHL 525 PHILOSOPHICAL METHODS (3) 
Examines diverse ways of approaching philosophical issues. Contains readings from different philosophical traditions. Develops understanding of the skills and conventions of philosophical argumentation.

Top PHL 530 HISTORY OF BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY (4) 
Examination of the major philosophical schools, texts, and thinkers in Buddhist history, emphasizing its Indian origins, but looking beyond to the various Buddhist traditions throughout Asia.

Top PHL 531 BUDDHISM, NON-VIOLENCE, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE (4) 
Investigates the philosophical grounding of Buddhist ideas about non-violence, justice and social responsibility. Looks at broad-based Buddhist social activism movements and leaders; their methods of training, issues and types of actions taken by "Socially Engaged Buddhists."

Top PHL 532 YOGA AND TANTRIC TRADITIONS (4)  Offered in current or future terms
An examination of the theory and practice of yoga and tantra in the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and in their contemporary popular manifestations. Emphasis on the representation of yoga and tantra in Indian literature and history, including contemplative practices, bodily disciplines, and ritual.

Top PHL 536 PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION (3)  Offered in current or future terms
Examination of significant philosophical issues or movements and their relationship to theology and religion. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 539 PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE (3) 
Intensive one-week field course taught in the Cascade Range. What is nature? What is the relation of humans to the rest of the natural world? How are our concepts of nature and decisions about land use shaped by the words and metaphors we use? What is the value of wild places? What can we learn from a close study of the natural world about right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic? The course will draw on many ways of knowing--philosophical analysis, close observation, and especially writing. Camping required. PREREQS: Admission by application, departmental approval required.

Top PHL 540 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS (3)  Offered in current or future terms
Philosophical ideas about our ethical relationships to the land, with applications to current environmental issues. Includes a study of different conceptions of environmental ethics; philosophical problems in environmental ethics, such as the rights of animals and plants; the uses of environmental ethics by environmental groups; and selected contemporary issues on the environmental front. PREREQS: PHL 205 and PHL 342 and PHL 365 or 6 credits of philosophy and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 541 CLASSIC MORAL THEORIES (3) 
Philosophical issues in ethics analyzed through the examination of such classical works in moral philosophy as Aristotle's Nichomachean ethics. Not offered every year. PREREQS: Either PHL 205 or PHL 342 or PHL 440 or one course in the history of philosophy.

Top PHL 542 CONTEMPORARY MORAL THEORIES (3) 
Examines contemporary ethical theories through study of moral philosophy in the 20th century, including recent developments in such areas as environmental ethics and feminist/feminine ethics. PREREQS: At least two philosophy courses including at least one of PHL 205 or PHL 342 or PHL 541.

Top PHL 543 WORLD VIEWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES (3)  Offered in current or future terms
A comparative study of world-views (secular and religious, Western and Eastern, modern and ancient) and how they affect concepts of nature, environmental values, and selected environmental issues. PREREQS: One introductory-level science course and sophomore standing.

Top PHL 544 BIOMEDICAL ETHICS (4)  Offered in current or future terms
Application of ethical principles and decision-making processes to selected problems in medicine, health care, and biotechnology. Special attention given to end-of-life choices, reproductive rights and technologies, organ transplantation, research ethics, genetic engineering, and allocating scarce resources. An interdisciplinary focus that draws on social, legal, economic, and scientific issues in ethical decisions in medicine. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 547 RESEARCH ETHICS (3) 
An examination of the interrelationship between ethical values and scientific practice. Topics include professionalism in science; scientific integrity, misconduct, and whistleblowing; the ethics of authorship; conflicts of interest between academic science and commercial science, and social responsibilities in science.

Top PHL 548 NATIVE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES (3) 
Native American perspectives on ways of knowing, sources of meaning and ethics, the nature of reality, self, community, and cosmos. Includes lectures, scholarship, story-telling, poetry, theater, and music as forums for this exploration. Introduces ideas of leading Native American thinkers about the human relation to the natural world, sources of strength and wisdom, the nature of time and place and spirit, right ways of acting in communities, both civic and biotic, and the place of beauty in a well-lived life. CROSSLISTED as ES 448/ES 548.

Top PHL 550 TOPICS (1-16) 
Uses the IDEAS MATTER lectures as the focus for an exploration of ideas that make a difference in the world. Students read background materials, attend lectures, meet with the speakers, and write essays on the ideas they learn. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 551 KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY (3) 
Examination of significant theories of knowledge, theories concerning the nature of reality, and their connections. Includes an analysis of important concepts and problems, such as perception, induction, belief, empiricism, rationalism, and skepticism. Not offered every year. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy, sophomore standing.

Top PHL 555 DEATH AND DYING (3)  Offered in current or future terms
A multidisciplinary study of cultural, philosophical, and religious perspectives on death, dying, and grieving. Not offered every year. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy or sophomore standing.

Top PHL 561 ART AND MORALITY (3)  Offered in current or future terms
The arts in the context of their connections to, and conflicts with, varied conceptions of the common good. Topics include free expression and community standards, museums and obligations toward cultural treasures, art in public places, public funding of art, the politics of taste. PREREQS: Sophomore standing.

Top PHL 562X AESTHETICS OF THE NATURAL WORLD (3) 
Aesthetics appreciation of the natural world in Western thought and concepts and activities that shaped it. Relationship of aesthetic experiences of the natural world to art and philosophies of art, to moral reasoning, environmentalism and how we live, to concepts of knowledge and reality, to UNESCO heritage concepts.

Top PHL 570 PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE (3) 
Examination of philosophical questions, classic and contemporary, about science and scientific knowledge. Scientific explanations, the structure of theories, the concept of a natural law, revolutions in science, influences of the sciences and philosophy on one another, science and values. Not offered every year. PREREQS: 6 credits of philosophy (upper-division philosophy recommended), sophomore standing.

Top PHL 574 PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY (4)  Offered in current or future terms
An introduction to some of the conceptual challenges engendered by contemporary evolutionary biology, including the nature of fitness, natural selection, adaptations, and species; identifying organisms, traits, and the units of selection; the evidence required to support particular adaptive or historical hypotheses; and others. PREREQS: Previous university-level course work in either philosophy or the biological sciences is strongly recommended.

Top PHL 599 TOPICS IN PHILOSOPHY (1-4)  Offered in current or future terms
Examination of the work of a philosopher or of a specific problem; e.g., Wittgenstein, determinism, perception. May be repeated for credit when topic varies. Not offered every year. This course is repeatable for a maximum of 16 credits. PREREQS: 6 credits of upper-division philosophy, sophomore standing.



 
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